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Yaghthis gheidhelos

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Yaghthis gheidhelos (language of the gheidhelo)

Historical Sound Changes Edit

From Proto-Celtic (PE) to Old Gheidhelos (OGH) to Middle Gheidhelos (MGH) to Modern Gheidhelos (NGH)

  • ɸ -> f (ph) -> f -> f
  • t -> t -> t/th -> t/th
  • k -> c (kh)/ch (tsh) -> c (k)/ch (tsh) -> c (k)/ch (tsh)
  • kw -> qu (kw) -> qu (k) -> cw (kw)
  • b -> b -> b/bh -> b/bh
  • g -> g/gh -> g/gh -> g/gh
  • gw -> qu (kw) -> gw -> g(u)w
  • s -> s -> s/sh -> s/sh
  • m -> m -> m -> m/n
  • n -> n -> n -> n
  • l -> l -> l -> l
  • r -> r -> r -> r
  • dl -> dhl -> dhl -> dhl (ll)
  • kwr -> cur -> quer -> cr (kr)
  • y -> y (zh) -> y -> y
  • w -> w -> f (ɸ) -> w
  • a -> a -> a -> a
  • á -> éa -> éai -> ai
  • ai -> éu -> éai -> ai
  • au -> áyu -> aiu -> ai
  • e -> e -> e -> e (è)
  • é -> éa -> éi -> ei
  • i -> i -> ë -> i
  • í -> í -> iu -> iu
  • o -> éo -> yo -> o
  • oi -> oi -> oi -> oi
  • ou -> óyi -> oiu -> oi
  • u -> u -> u (ü) -> u
  • ú -> ú -> úi -> ui

Umlauts Edit

  • a -> ai -> au
  • e -> ei -> ea
  • i -> iu -> eo
  • o -> oi -> ou
  • u -> ui -> eu

Harmony Edit

Vowels and consonants share some kind of harmony.

When an "e" or "i" is preceded by a "b, c, d, g, p, dhl, s, t" or "z" an extra "h" is added, like b+eru = bheru. Also word-final they get it: iugon => iugh, though "p" and "s" don't necessarily need it (wiros, not wirosh). "gh" and "ch" can also exist in front of any other vowel. All "h"-forms can exist in front of a consonant. The "h"-form of "dhl" is "dhlgh".

Phonology Edit

The letters and their pronunciation:

  • a: [a]
  • ai: [ái]
  • au: [áu]
  • b: [b]
  • bh: [bχ]
  • c: [k]
  • ch: [ʧ]
  • d: [d]
  • dh: [ð]
  • dhl: [ɬ]
  • dhlgh: [ðɫχ]
  • e: [ɛ]
  • ea: [ɛ́a]
  • ei: [ɛ́i]
  • eo: [ɛ́o]
  • eu: [ɛ́u]
  • f: [ɸ]
  • g: [g]
  • gh: [χ]
  • i: [i]
  • iu: [iú]
  • l: [l]
  • m: [m]
  • n: [n]
  • o: [o]
  • oi: [ói]
  • ou: [óu]
  • r: [r]
  • s: [s]
  • sh: [ʃ]
  • t: [t]
  • th: [tχ]
  • u: [u]
  • ui: [úi]
  • w: [w]
  • y: [j]
  • z: [z]
  • zh: [ʒ]

Orthography Edit

The orthography is highly regular and even standard loanwords are changed, computer -> c(a)mbyuthiur, though most words get a neoglism, computer -> wergh(c)lairus (from wergu, to work, and clairus, table)

Grammar Edit

ArticleEdit

The definite article is an or a. The indefinite article is oinos.

PronounsEdit

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative
Singular First iugh moi miugh me
Second tui toi thiubhe twiu the
Third em soi shiugh she
Dual First waidh nodh naidh naidh
Second ghiu ghos ghom ghon ghei
Third eson shiu shem shem
Plural First nuis nos nais nais
Second yui wos usmai wais iu
Third eson shiu shem chuigh

Other forms include:

  • mene: mine
  • thene: yours

Often the genitive form is used instead of the dative and accusative. ‘tur agh moi’ instead of ‘tur agh me’. This is a shorter form of ‘cherch moi’ (my body) Also note that ‘tur agh me’ does not exist, because it would be ‘tur ame’, as ‘agh’ is an inflected preposition.

AdjectivesEdit

‘shene’ (old)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular shenos shenos shenon shene
Dual shenou shenou shenou shene
Singular shenou shenou shenou shene

‘mathe’ (good)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular matos matos maton mathe
Dual matou matou matou mathe
Singular matou matou matou mathe

NounsEdit

‘wiros’ (man)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular wiros wiron wiron wiur
Dual wirou wiron wirobhi wiure
Singular wirou wiron wirobhin wiuri

‘duinon’ (settlement)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular duinon duinos duinom duin
Dual duinou duinos duinobhi duine
Singular duinou duinos duinobhin duini

‘bhenai’ (woman)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular bhenai bhenais bhenam bhene
Dual bhenau bheinais bheinam bhene
Singular bhenau bheinaus bheinan bheni

‘dants’ (tooth)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular dants dantos dantom dainth
Dual dantou danton dantobhi dainthe
Singular daintou dainton daintobhin dainthi

‘rigs’ (king)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular rigs righ righ righe
Dual righs riugh riugh righe
Singular righs riugh riugh righi

‘fathiur’ (father)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular fathiur fatros fatheir faidh
Dual faithiur faitros faitheir faidhe
Singular faithiur faitros faitheir faidhi

‘cun’ (dog)

Nominative Genitive Accusative Vocative
Singular cun cuns cunim cuin
Dual cuni cunis cunim cuine
Singular cuni cunis cunim cuini

VerbsEdit

There's only one simple tense: present. There are two conjugations: -u and -i.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First bheru bheru bherdh bherum bhergh bheridh bherum bhergh bherigh
Second bheir bher bheirdh bheiru bheirgh bheiridh bheiru bheirgh bheirigh

Some words might get an extra 'h' extra because of the harmony. Like: ‘cwetu’ (I save, first) and ‘cweith’ (I save, second), also remember ‘cwethigh’ (they spare, first).

Other tenses are constructed like:

  • Am bhiu shene. = I was old.
  • Dhem bhiu shene. = I will be old.
  • Am dhem bhiu shene. = I would be old.
  • Niu bhiu shene. = I'm not old.
  • Niu am dhem bhiu shene. = I would not be old.
  • Dheigh niu am dhem bhiu shene? = Wouldn't I be old?
  • Ui cwargu autos trei me. = The car was made by me.
  • Erbhiu bhiu. = Let me be.

Negative terms are:

  • Niu (ghiudh) = not
  • Niu cwani = never
  • Niu thents = nothing
  • Niu cwuts = nowhere
  • Niu maigh = not anymore
  • Niu caidh = not yet

Now comes -i:

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First gli glist glidh glim gligh glidh glim gligh glidh
Second gliu gliust gliudh glium gliugh gliudh glium gliugh gliudh

The verb ‘to have’ is made using a construction:

  • Bhidh bargos agh moi. = Is book at me. = I have a book.

There are some irregular verbs.

‘bhi’ is to be.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First bhi bhist bhidh fuildh fuil fuildh es est esidh
Second bhiu bhiust bhiudh siun suigh suidh eis eist eisidh

‘aghi’ means to say:

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First agh abhi adh aghim aghigh adh am aghigh adh
Second aigh aibhi aidh aighim aighigh aidh aighim aighigh aidh

‘clusu’ is to hear.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First clusu clus clusdh clusum clusgh clusidh clusum clusgh clusigh
Second cluis cluis cluisdh cluisu cluisgh cluisidh cluisum cluisgh cluisigh

‘dhin’ means to do.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First dhin dus dhidh dhenum dhengh dhenidh wragam wraigh wragai
Second dhiun duis diudh dheinum dheingh dheinidh wraigam wraugh wraigai

‘edhe’ is to eat.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First edhe igh idh edhum edhugh edhudh edhu edhigh edhidh
Second eidhe iugh iudh eidhum eidhugh eidhudh eidhu eidhigh eidhidh

‘ru’ is to give.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First ru ra rudh tufrodum rugh tufrodhidh rum rugh ruigh
Second rui rui ruidh tuifrodu ruigh ruidh ruim ruigh ruigh

‘theigu’ is to go.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First theigu theigh theidh theim theigh stuight stuim stuigh stuight
Second theagh theagh theadh theam theagh theadh stuigon theagh theadh

‘tur’ is to come.

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First tur tur turdh turum trugh turidh turet turgh trigh
Second tuir tuir tuirdh tuiru tuirgh tuiridh tuirum tuirgh triugh

‘wu’ is to blow, only used with wind!

Singular Dual Plural
first second third first second third first second third
First wu wu wudh wurum wugh wudh wurum wugh wurugh
Second wuir wuir wuidh wuirum wuigh wuidh wuiru wuigh wuirugh

Word order Edit

The common word order is VERB - SUBJECT - OBJECT, though some exceptions exist. More precise: Preverbal particles (see below) - verbs - subject - place - dative - accusative - time - other.

The order of preverbal particles is: dheigh - niu - ui - am - dhem - erbhui.

Vocabulary Edit

Yaghtis gheidhelos/Evolution: From Proto-Celtic to Modern Gheidhelos
Yaghtis gheidhelos/Relation to other Celtic languages: Comparison between other Celtic languages
Yaghtis gheidhelos/Vocabulary: Some standard words NGH - ENG

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