FANDOM


Yarilian is an Indo-European language spoken in Yarilia (a Caucasian country). It's the last surviving spoken Indo-European language of the Caucasian branch. Its relatives were languages like Alanian which died out.

Yarilian
Jariljar
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Masculine, Feminine, Neuter
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Luxo1


Writing SystemEdit

Letter a b c d e f g h i j k l
Sound /a/ /b/ /ts/ /d/ /ɛ/ /f/ /g/ /ħ/ /i/ /j/ /k/ /l/
Letter m n o p q r s t u v x z
Sound /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /c/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /x/ /z/
Letter ċ ż
Sound /tʃ/ /ð/ /ʁ/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/

GrammarEdit

Syntax Edit

The syntax of the Yarilian language is VSO : verb-subject-object. Sometimes the subject can be left out if the ending of a verb is already defining who does the action, e.g. Edo pemam. (=I eat an apple; litterally "Eat-I apple" - "eu" meaning I in English can be left out since "Edo" is already precising that the action of eating is done by the first person singular in the present tense thanks to its ending -o), but you have to say, e.g. Eda Peter pemam. (=Peter eats an apple; litterally "Eats Peter apple" - VSO).

NounsEdit

The nouns in Yarilian are declined in cases and numbers. The numbers are quite easy since there are only singular and plural. In Yarilian there are eight cases; the ground form of a noun is the nominative case. Yarilian nouns may be masculin (m), feminine (f) or neuter (n).

SINGULAR

MES (=month; m)

NOQTA (=night; f)

NJEBO (=sky; n)

NOMINATIVE

mes

noqta njebo

VOCATIVE

mesi

noqto njebo

ACCUSATIVE

mesem

noqtam njebo

DATIVE

mesej

noqte njebe

GENITIVE

meses

noqtas njebas

ABLATIVE

meso

noqte njebej

INSTRUMENTAL

meseṙ

noqteṙ njebeṙ

LOCATIVE

mesi

noqti njebi

PLURAL

NOMINATIVE

mese

noqte njeba

VOCATIVE

mese

noqte njeba

ACCUSATIVE

mese

noqte njeba

DATIVE

mesom

noqtes njebom

GENITIVE

mesoṙ

noqtar njebar

ABLATIVE

mesam

noqtem njebam

INSTRUMENTAL

mesis

noqtis njebis

LOCATIVE

mesu

noqtu njebu

There are no irregular nouns and there are also no nouns which are changing their gender like in French.

There are four types of definitiness in Yarilian :

  1. The neutral definitiness ending -de expresses a simple definitiness, e.g. noqtade (=the night)
  2. The proximal definitiness ending -ve expresses that the noun is near to the speaker, e.g. noqtave (=this night)
  3. The distal definitiness ending -ne expresses that the noun is far from the speaker, e.g. noqtane (=that night)
  4. The equal definitiness ending -ċe expresses that the noun is neither near to nor far from the speaker and the spoken one, e.g. noqtaċe (=yonder night)

Use of the cases Edit

  1. Nominative : is used to express the subject and the attribute of the verbs bi (=to be) and stak (=to become), e.g. Eda Peter pemam. (=Peter eats an apple.), Eṣt Peter daskel. (=Peter is a teacher.), Sta Peter daskel. (=Peter is becoming a teacher.)
  2. Vocative : is used to express an exclamation, e.g. Dżano, eṣti bava. (=Oh woman, you are beautiful.)
  3. Accusative : is used to express the direct object and the motion towards a location, and every preposition is followed by the accusative case, e.g. Eda daskelde pemam. (=The teacher eats an apple.), Ida daskelde ṣkolam. (=The teacher goes to school.), Eṣt dara Peterej ḍa daskelemde. (=Peter has a gift for the teacher.)
  4. Dative : is used to express the indirect object and the motion across a location, and the verb "to have" is expressed by the verb bi (=to be) followed by the thing that is possessed in the nominative case and by then by the possessor in the dative case, e.g. Do daram Peterej. (=I give Peter a gift.), Ido stradede. (=I go across the road.), Eṣt dino Peterej. (=Peter has a watermelon. - litteraly : Is watermelon to Peter.; or half-corrected : A watermelon is to Peter.)
  5. Genitive : is used to express the possessive object, e.g. Eṣt ṣa mata Peteres. (=She is Peter's mother.)
  6. Ablative : is used to express the motion from a location and the causal object, e.g. Felxo Germanje Amerikam. (=I fly from Germany to America.), Di Peter dżaneve daram agape hej ḍa ṣam. (=Peter gave this woman a gift because of his love for her.)
  7. Instrumental : is used to express the instrumental object and a duration of time, e.g. Ṣerbo plemeṙ. (=I write with a pencil.), Zoro noqteṙde. (=I sleep during the night.)
  8. Locative : is used to express the location, e.g. Sum Ameriki. (=I am in America.)

Pronouns Edit

Personal pronouns :

 

I

you

he

she

it

self

we

you all

they

NOM

eu

tu

he

ṣa

to

-

ni

vi

li

ACC

me

te

hem

ṣam

to

se

no

ve

le

DAT

mi

ti

hi

ṣi

hi

si

noj

voj

loj

GEN

mej

tej

hej

ṣej

hej

-

nej

vej

lej

ABL

mex

tex

hex

ṣex

hex

sex

nex

vex

lex

INSTR

mem

tem

hema

ṣema

hema

sem

nem

vem

lem

LOC

meg

teg

heg

ṣeg

heg

seg

neg

veg

leg

  1. In Yarilian there aren't possessive pronouns, so they are replaced by the personal pronoun in the genitive case, e.g. mata mej (=my mother)
  2. In Yarilian the reflexive pronoun is defective, since there isn't a genitive case, e.g. Vedo se derkalide. (=I see myself in the miror.), but : Vedo matam mej. (=I see my mother.; even if technically mej/my is reflexive, but there isn't a reflexive genitive pronoun.)

Interrogative pronouns :

who

what

NOM

qi

qto

ACC

qem

qto

DAT

qe

qte

GEN

qes

qtes

ABL

qo

qtem

INSTR

qeṙ

qteṙ

LOC

qej

qtej

The interrogative pronouns can be used as relative pronouns, even if they don't make the difference between gender or number, e.g. Eṣt dżanade qi vedo bava. (=The woman whom I see is beautiful.)

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives are declined according to the number, gender and case of a noun. They always take the same ending like those of a noun and come before the noun, e.g. bave dżane (=beautiful women). If an adjective comes before a definite noun, then the definitiness ending has to be added to the adjective and removed from the noun, e.g. bavede dżane (=the beautiful women).

Comparative :

The comparative is formed by adding the suffix -re after the ending, e.g. bavadere dżana (=the more beautiful woman). The comparison is done by the adjective in the comparative and the compared noun in the ablative case, e.g. Eṣt dżanave bavare dżanene. (=This woman is more beautiful than that woman.)

Superlative :

The superlative is formed by adding the suffix -hej after the ending, e.g. bavadehej dżana (=the most beautiful woman). The superlative may be increased in its meaning by adding the suffix -la to -hej, it has then an exaggerated meaning and is mostly used for poetic purposes, e.g. bavadehejla dżana (=the most beautiful woman on this earth / I've ever seen...).

Verbs Edit

In Yarilian there are many verb tenses and moods and they even differ if their active, passive or causative. Notice that the verb bi (=to be) is iregular and hasn't got a passive or causative voice. To show you the declension system of the regular verbs, I'll take as exemple the verb dak (=to give). Notice also that the verb stem is the verb without the infinitive ending -ak.

Indicative :

PRESENT

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

CAUSATIVE

bi

eu

do

doṙ

dojna

sum

tu

daṣti

daṣtiṙ

daṣtina

eṣti

he, ṣa, to

da

daṙ

dana

eṣt

ni

dame

dameṙ

damna

am

vi

daṣte

daṣteṙ

daṣtena

eṣte

li

du

duṙ

dujna

suj

  1. It's used to describe present events, e.g. Edo pemam. (=I'm eating an apple.)
  2. It's used to describe repetitive events in the present, e.g. Edo pemam seqej zeji. (=I eat every day an apple.)
  3. It can be used to describe the future, but only for schedules, e.g. Ida avtobusde 14:30 satu. (=The bus comes at 14:30.)
  4. The present progressive tense can be formed by the auxiliary verb kadar (=to do / =to make) in the present tense and the main verb in the participle present active neuter (ending : -ando), e.g. kado dando (=I'm doing). It's used to emphazise the action in the present, e.g. Kado seċando avtobusemde. (=I'm waiting for the bus. - the action of waiting is emphazised)

PERFECT

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

CAUSATIVE

bi

eu

dasum

darasum

danasum

besum

tu

dajeṣti

dareṣti

daneṣti

beṣti

he, ṣa, to

dajeṣt

dareṣt

daneṣt

beṣt

ni

dajam

daram

danam

bejam

vi

dajeṣte

dareṣte

daneṣte

beṣte

li

dasuj

darasuj

danasuj

besuj

  1. It's used to describe a past situation continuing to the present, e.g. Ṣaxasum hem seqad. (=I've always guided him.)
  2. It's used to describe a present result of a past action, e.g. Falajeṣt. (=It has rained. - the result is that the streets are wet; if the imperfect had been used instead of the perfect, it would have the meaning that the streets aren't wet any more)

IMPERFECT

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

CAUSATIVE

bi

eu

daṙ

daraṙ

darna

beṙ

tu

daṣi

daṣiṙ

daṣina

beṣi

he, ṣa, to

daṣa

daṣaṙ

daṣana

beṣa

ni

daxme

daxmeṙ

daxmena

bexme

vi

daxte

daxteṙ

daxtena

bexte

li

daxa

daxaṙ

daxana

bexa

  1. It's used to express continuing, long-during actions or events in the past, e.g. Redodaṙ parkide, qad iḍiṣt. (=I was walking in the park, when you came.)
  2. It's used to express repeated actions in the past, e.g. Redodaṣa patar tej parkide seqej zeji. (=Your father used to walk every day in the park.)

AORIST I

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

CAUSATIVE

bi

eu

ja

jaṙ jana bja

tu

iṣt

iṣtiṙ iṣtana biṣt

he, ṣa, to

i

iṙ ina be

ni

ime

imeṙ imna bime

vi

iṣte

iṣteṙ iṣtena biṣte

li

ju

juṙ juna bju
  1. It's used to express single, unique and accomplished actions or events in the past, e.g. Redoḍja parkide kiraṣe. (=I walked yesterday in the park.)
  2. Make clearly the difference between the imperfect and the aorist of the verb bi (=to be) : the imperfect expresses that the state of being may continue to the present moment and the aorist expresses that the state of being is completely finished, e.g. Beṣa pater tej lekar. (=Your father was a doctor. - he's still alive), but : Be pater tej lekar. (=Your father was a doctor. - he's dead)
  3. Some final consonants of the verb stem follow a lenition in the aorist I (notice the first consonant is the present final consonant and the second is the aorist I final consonant with lenition) : b -- v; c -- s; d -- ḍ; f -- v; g -- ż; k -- h; p -- b; q -- k; s -- z; t -- d; x -- h; ċ -- c; ṣ -- s; ż -- z. That's why dak (=to give) in the aorist I is ja and not dja.

AORIST II

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

CAUSATIVE

bi

eu

deda

dedaṙ

dedana

va

tu

dediṣt

dediṣtiṙ

dediṣtana

viṣt

he, ṣa, to

dedi

dediṙ

dedina

vi

ni

dedime

dedimeṙ

dedimna

vime

vi

dediṣte

dediṣteṙ

dediṣtena

viṣte

li

dedu

deduṙ

deduna

vu

  1. It expresses the same temporal aspect as the aorist I, but the difference is that the aorist I is vernacular and the aorist II is used for literal and poetic purposes. The aorist I is more regular than the aorist II, since the aorist I takes the infinitive stem followed by lenition and the aorist II takes the irregular perfect stem, which isn't used any more in the spoken language. That's why dak (=to give) in the aorist II is deda. So you'll say : Redoḍja parkide kiraṣe. (=I walked yesterday in the park. - aorist I), you'll write in informal purposes (letter, scientific report, sms...) : Redoḍja parkide kiraṣe. (=I walked yesterday in the park. - aorist I), but you'll write in formal purposes (law, novell, roman, poem...) : Redhoda parkide kiraṣe. (=I walked yesterday in the park. - aorist II).

PLUPERFECT

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

CAUSATIVE

bi

eu

dabeṙ

darbeṙ

danbeṙ

veṙ

tu

dabeṣi

darbeṣi

danbeṣi

veṣi

he, ṣa, to

dabeṣa

darbeṣa

danbeṣa

veṣa

ni

dabexme

darbexme

danbexme

vexme

vi

dabexte

darbexte

danbexte

vexte

li

dabexa

darbexa

danbexa

vexa

  1. It's used to express continuing, long-during actions or events in the past occuring before other past actions or events, e.g. Ajtes beṣa pater tej lekar, matenabeṣa medecinam univerziteti. (=Before your father was a doctor, he had been studying medecines at university.)

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.