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Yesega

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Name: ზესეგა - Yesega

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative–accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Yesega (ზესეგა yesega, [ʐʲeˈsegə], [ʝʲeˈsegə]) is a posteriori language, being mainly Indo-European. This language's culture, however, evolved to be fairly isolated. This resulted in its obscure phoneme inventory and unusual syntax and grammar. It uses 15 characters from the Georgian alphabet, as well as 〈'〉 to represent the glottal stop. Its closest linguistic relatives are Ancient Greek, Latin, and Romanian with small influences from Slavic and alleged relation to the Japonic language family.

AlphabetEdit

The alphabet in Yesega is called ალეჰაპა alehafa. The Georgian scipt in which it is written is called უმგეტზი umgetyi, a single letter is called a გეტზი getyi, and the romanized alphabet is called რეუმგეტზი reumgetyi.

Name Reumgetyi Umgetyi *GQI Phoneme
ჰატემ hatem H h h x
პალაი falai F ṗ' p ɸ/f/ɱ
მემ mem M m m m
ტა ta T t' t t
ნან nan N n n n
ლამე lame L l l l
აზამ ayam Y z z ʐʲ/ʝʲ
ესეტ eset S s s s
ეშენ exen X sh S ʂ
გელემ galam G g g g
რალა rala R r r ʁ/r
' ნა'ა na'a ' ' ' ʔ
ალე ale A a a a/ə
ილე ile I i i i
ულე ule U u u u
ელე ele E e e e

*Georgian QWERTY Input

EtymologyEdit

The history of the word Yesega comes from the Middle Yesegan word for language, ზეზეგა zezeka, which originates from Proto-Yesegan ეზე' ezeq meaning "tongue". This comes from the Late Proto-Slavic *ęzỳkъ.

Several etymological roots can be seen from Latin sources, however some words have been highly distorded due to isolation. An example of this includes the word for "eye" which is ჰუ'უმ hu'um, coming from oculus→oqu→hoqum→hu'um.

PhonologyEdit

HistoryEdit

The consonants and vowels in Yesega became somewhat skewed over time, leading to a phonological shift between Proto-Yesega, Middle Yesega, and the modern Communal Yesega. The basic "shift" went as follows:

Ø→h→x
p→f→ɸ/f/ɱ
z→j→ʐʲ/ʝʲ
t͡ʃ→ʃ→ʂ
k→k→g
k→k→ʔ
Ø/h→ɣ→ʁ/r
many vowels shifted seemingly randomly, losing [o] after Middle Yesega.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal 〈მ〉 〈ნ〉 ŋ1
Plosive p2 〈ტ〉 g〈გ〉 ʔ 〈'〉
Fricative ɸ 〈პ〉 〈ს〉

ʂ 〈შ〉

ʐʲ 〈ზ〉

x〈ჰ〉 ʁ 〈რ〉
Liquid 〈ლ〉

1[n] becomes [ŋ] when used as〈ნგ, ng〉.

2[ɸ] becomes [p] after [m] and sometimes when beginning a phrase or after a pause.

DialectsEdit

The standard dialect of Yesega is fomally called ზესეგა გუმუნ yesega gumun, meaning "Communal Yesega". Pronunciation, however, can have subtle differences. 〈y〉 can be pronounced [ʝ] rather than standard [ʐ], and 〈f〉 can be pronounced [f] and sometimes [ɱ] between vowels rather than [ɸ]. Standard [ʁ] is aternately trilled [r], usually when sung.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Near-back Back
Close i〈ი〉 u〈უ〉
Near-close ɪ1 ʊ2
Close-mid e〈ე〉
Mid ə3
Open a〈ა〉

1[i] sometimes becomes [ɪ] when unstressed.

2[u] sometimes becomes [ʊ] when unstressed.

3[a] becomes [ə] when unstressed.

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables in Yesega can have quite complex and unique consonant and vowel clusters such as პტენეეუპე fteneeufe [ɸteˈneʊ̯ɸe] and ტშზრიმატშუ txyrimatxu [ʈʂʲʁɪˈmaʈʂu], however there are some restrictions:

N= Nasal   P= Plosive   F= Fricative   L= Liquid


LN-  NL-  -NL  -PL  -FL  NP-  PN-  -PN  NF-  -FN  NN  PP

The following also cannot exist:

rP-  -Pr  -mt  -mg  -nf  -ngf  -ngt  rN-  -Nr  rF-  -Fr  rL-  -Lr

StressEdit

The stress on a syllable of a word depends of the final phoneme.

Ending in a Vowel or NasalEdit

Words ending in any vowel, M, or N places stress on the second to last syllable.

ემნე emne; გაუნ gaun; მეუმ meum

Ending in a Consonant and NgEdit

Words that end in a consonant other than M or N has stress on the final syllable.

ტერ eter; ატაშ atas; ნარანგ narang

IrregularitiesEdit

Ending with Stressed Vowel (+M/N)Edit

The final vowel is doubled when stressed in a syllable ending with a vowel, M, or N.

ჰეუსეე heusee

Stressed Syllable ElsewhereEdit

The consonant following a stressed vowel of a syllable that does not abide by the rules mentioned before is doubled. If the syllable does not end in a consonant, the vowel is doubled.

სტუმმაგე stummage
ლეეუმ leeum

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Singular Plural
1st Person

e

I/me

ემ em

We/us

2nd Person

ლა la

You

ლამ lam

You all

3rd Person

სა sa

It/he/him/she/her/(xe/xyr)1

სამ sam

They/Them

ე მუ'არ ემნუ. E mu'ar emnu. I am a woman.
ლამ რულუ. Lam rulu. You all run.
სა ტუერნა ტხუ. Sa tuerna txu. He eats cake.

1Xe/xyr refers to any gender non-binary pronoun. This includes the singular they/them, zie/zir, etc.

ReflexiveEdit

Singular Plural
1st Person

ენუა enua

Myself

ენუამ enuam

Ourself/ourselves

2nd Person

ლანუა lanua

Yourself

ლანუამ lanuam

Yourselves

3rd Person

სანუა sanua

It/him/her/xemself

სანუამ sanuam

Themself/themselves

ემ ეტ ენუამ გაუნტუ. Em et enuam gauntu. We sing to ourselves.
ლა ეტ ლანუა არაუ. La et lanua arau. You laugh to yourself.
სამ ეტ სანუამ ეტაუ. Sam et sanuam etau. They hurt themselves.
In standard Yesega, a speaker will usually put ეტ et linking the personal pronoun to its reflexive.

DemonstrativeEdit

Proximal Mesial Distal Interrogative
Object1

ტე te

This

ტა ta

That

ტუა tua

That over there

Objects plural1

ტემ tem

These

ტამ tam

Those

ტუამ tuam

Those over there

Location

ტერა tera

Here

ტარა tara

There

ტუარა tuara

Over there

პარა fara

Where?

ტე გაუნ ემნუ. Te gaun emnu. That is a dog.
ეტ ტა1 ამჰულუა მიტზალა. Et ta1 amhulua mityala. Look at that1 tree.
სა ტუამ ტამუ. Sa tuam tamu. She has those over there.
ე ეტ ტერა ემნუ. E et tera emnu. I am here.
ლა ეტ პარა ემნუამ? La et fara emnuam? Where are you?

1These pronouns can also be used as adjectives.

InterrogativeEdit

Root

პა fa

What

Object

პა fa

What/Which?

Being

პალ fal

Who(m)?

Location

პარა fara

Where/Whither?

Amount

პაუტა fauta

How much/many?

Method

პამა fama

How?

Reason

პაიმე faime

Why?

Time

პალამ falam

When?

Type

პა'ეტ fa'et

What type?

ლა პა აშაუ გუტზუამ? La fa axau gutyuam? What do you like to do?
პა პლუმე სა ემნუამ? Fa flume sa emnuam? Which pen is it?
პალ ტე ეშაეტამ? Fal te axaetam? Who did this?
ე ეტ პარა საუ რულუამ? E et fara sau ruluam? To where should I run?
ე პაუტა პალზა საუ გუმპარუამ? E fauta falya sau gumfaruam? Which plant should I purchase?
ე ტე პამა აშაუ ეშიგუამ? E te fama axau exiguam? How do I say this?
ლა პაიმე ტუნგგუამ? La faime tungguam? Why are you crying?
პარატი პალამ ემნუამ? Farati falam emnuam? When is the party?
ტა პა'ეტ გრეზან ემნუამ? Ta fa'et greyan emnuam? What type of pencil is that?

IndefiniteEdit

Proximal Mesial Distal Negative Universal Existential
Elective Assertive
Root

ტე te

this ...

ტა ta

that ...

ტუა tua

that ... over there

ნე ne

no(t) ...

სუა sua

each/every ...

ეგე ege

any ...

ატა ata

some ...

Object

*ტე te

this

*ტა ta

that

*ტუა tua

that over there

ნელ nel

nothing

*სუალა suala

everything

*ეგელა egela

anything

*ატალა atala

something

Being

*ნელან nelan

nobody/no one

სუანან suanan

everybody/everyone

ეგენან egenan

anybody/anyone

ატანან atanan

somebody/someone

Location

ტერა tera

here

ტარა tara

there

ტუარა tuara

over there

ნერა nera

nowhere

სუარა suara

everywhere

ეგერა egera

anywhere

ატარა atara

somewhere

Amount

ტეუტა teuta

this many/much

ტაუტა tauta

that many/much

*ტუტა tuta

that other amount

ნეუტა neuta

none/not any

ეგეუტა egeuta

any amount

ატაუტა atauta

some amount

Method

ტემა tema

this way

ტამა tama

that way

ტუამა tuama

that other way

*ნეამა neama

no way

სუამა suama

every way

ეგემა egema

anyhow

ატამა atama

somehow

Time

*ტეალამ tealam

now

ტალამ talam

then

ტუალამ tualam

that other time

*ნეალამ nealam

never

სუალამ sualam

everytime

*ეგეალამ egealam

anytime

*ატა'ალამ ata'alam

sometime

Type

ტე'ეტ te'et

like this

*ტა'ატ ta'at

like that

*ტუა'ატ tua'at

like that other type

*These words do not follow the normal rules of affixing.

Verb ConjugationEdit

Verbs in Yesega are conjugated according to verb tense.

THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS UNDER REVISIONS

Tense English
Infinitive

Present

ემნუ emnu to be

is

Past ემნეტა emneta was
Future ემნაზა emnaya will be
Negative present ემნენა emnena is not
Negative past ემნეტენა emnetena was not
Negative future ემნაზენა emnayena will not be
Imperative ემნალა emnala (you) be
Negative imperative ემნალენა emnalena (you) do not be
Present perfect ემნაუ emnau has/have been
Past perfect ემნაეტა emnaeta had been
Future perfect ემნა'აზა emna'aya will have been
Negative present perfect ემნაუნა emnauna has/have not been
Negative past perfect  ემნაეტანა emnaetana had not been
Negative future perfect ემნა'აზანა emna'ayana will have not been
Interrogative present ემნუამ emnuam what is?
Interrogative past ემნეტან emnetam what was?
Interrogative future ემნაზამ emnayam what will be?
Interrogative present perfect ემნაუამ emnauam what has been?
Interrogative past perfect ემნაეტამ emnaetam what had been?
Interrogative future perfect ემნა'აზამ emna'ayam what will have been?
Negative interrogative present perfect ემნაუნუამ emnaunuam what has not been?
Negative interrogative past perfect ემნაეტანამ emnaetanam what had not been?
Negative interrogative future perfect ემნა'აზანამ emna'ayanam what will have not been?

NumberEdit

DualityEdit

Duality in Yesega is used when there are two of any noun. While it is uncommon in formal speech, duality of a noun is suffixed to a word -იტან -itan in most cases. If the singular version ends in ჰ h or რ r-ეტან -etan is added. If a singular word already ends in ი i, -შტან -xtan is added.

ტსაიტან tsaitan two houses
პლერეტან fleretan two flowers
მუტიშტან mutixtan two legs


PluralityEdit

Plurality is used in Yesega to express when there are many of a noun. The suffix -იმ -im is added to the word. If a word ends in  h or  r, -ემ -em is used instead. It is common in formal speech and writings to express duality by stating the number and adding the general -იმ -im or -ემ -em suffix instead. If a singular word already ends in ი i, -მ -m is added.

გატრა რალარემ gatra ralarem four clocks
პელეუმიმ feleumim hairs
უტუმ პურგულიტსიმ utum furgulitsim two forks

SyntaxEdit

Word order in Yesega is usually SOV. Adjectives and adverbs follow the word they are modifying. If there are more than one modifying words, each is followed by a comma, with the final one followed by a semicolon. Numbers and pronouns are the only adjectives to go before the word it modifies.

Three angry, brown dogs quickly bit the cat.
ტსრაი გაუნიმ სუპარატა, გასტანზუმ; მეუმ მუტშეტა ზუტე.
Tsrai gaunim sufarata, gasatanyum; meum mutxeta yute.
three dog-pl angry, brown; cat bit quickly.

LinksEdit

Swadesh List: http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Yesega/Swadesh_List

Numbers: http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Yesega/Numbers

Colors: http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Yesega/Colors

Calendar: http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Yesega/Calendar

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