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Yimmu
"Udu"
Type
Agglutinating or Fusional for certain parts of speech
Alignment
Subject - Object - Verb
Head direction
Conjugations, Declensions, and syntactic inflections are suffixes. Inflections that modify the content but not the syntactic behavior of the word are prefixes. Heads are typically first if there are no content inflections
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Yimmu is the most widespread language throughout eastern Calaveigjia and is indigenous to the Mansadr region. Its most populous dialect is called "Udu" and is spoken in the upstream portion of the Amanapura and Tanchi alluvial plains. Another dialect, Maglaiyam, is spoken in Pidjupti and the western foothills. Tala, the third dialect, is spoken in Kina. Yimmu is one of the two languages in the east Calaveigjian language group, the other being Cuoralam which is spoken in Panjur. The east Calaveigjian language groups is one of the three language groups of Calaveigjia and, although no origins have been confirmed, connections to Bantu, Dravidian, and Austronesian languages have been made. The other two groups are the Balsurati and Chodan language groups. The Balsurati language group is almost definitely African in origin with many connections to Bantu languages while the origins of the Chodan are unknown.

The following is a description that mainly focuses on the Udu dialect of Yimmu.

PhonologyEdit

Yimmu has very little consonant clusters and words can thus be said with efficiency. When consonant clusters do exist, they usually consist of an two approximate or nasal consonant paired together. Sometimes one approximate or nasal consonant is paired with a plosive, fricative, or affricate consonant. Consonant clusters almost never consist of plosive, fricative, or affricate consonants paired together. The most common vowel in Yimmu is "a" "are". "a" makes up approximately 50% of all vowels. After that, "eh","ee", and "oo" are the second most common consonants. "o" as in "home" is a bit less common than "eh", "ee", and "oo". "ih" as in "him" and "ae" as in "as" are very uncommon and only occur in a few words.

The following picture depicts a typed

MorphologyEdit

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate for tense, person, number, and aspect in a string of three morphemes that come after the head of the verb.

"Ne kamalenu" means "I run"

Kamalenu consists of "kamal", which means "run", "e", a morpheme signifying present tense, "n", a morpheme signifying a first person singular subject, and "u", a morpheme signifying simple aspect. If you separate the verb into its individual morphemes, it would be kamal-e-n-u or (base)(tense)(person/number)(aspect)

There are 3 tenses:

past = kamal-A-nu

present = kamal-E-nu

future = kamal-I-nu


There are 6 combinations of person and number:

1st singular = kamale-N-u

2nd singular = kamale-M-u

3rd singular = kamale-L-u

1st plural = kamale-D-u

2nd plural = kamale-J-u

3rd plural = kamale-V-u


There are four aspects:

simple = kamalel-U

progressive = kamalel-A

perfect = kamalel-I

perfect progressive = kamalel-ATU


There are 5 moods in Yimmu:

Subjunctive = tekamalenu

Conditional = pakamalenu

Imperative = chakamalenu

Interrogative = rikamalenu

Inferential = mekamalenu


For example: "Ma rikamaledatu?" would mean "Will you all have been running?"

NounsEdit

Nouns decline for specificity, case, and number. The morpheme for specificity comes before the base.

"jamu" means "the cat"

"ejamu" means "a cat" or "any cat"

"ajamu" means "all cats"

There are 8 combinations of case and number

singular nominative = jamu

singular accusative = jama

singular prepositional = jami

singular dative = jame

plural nominative = jamalu

plural accusative = jamala

plural prepositional = jamilu

plural dative = jamelu

For example: "ajamalu" would be the accusative form of "all cats"


Morphology ChartsEdit

Syntax Edit

General Layout: SOV

Noun phrase: ((noun)postposition)(determiner(noun))((adjective)adverb)

Verb phrase: (((noun)postposition)((verb)adverb))

NotesEdit

Note: Phrase transitioners

Between the subject phrase and object phrase, there is the phrase transitioner, "ya" (e.g. "I scratched it" would be "I ya it scratched" or "Ne ya yelu charanu") If there is only a pronoun in the subject, it can be informally eliminated from the sentence. (e.g. you could say "ya yelu charenu"). This phrase transitioner is only present when the verb has an object. (e.g. a sentence like "I ran" would not have "ya"). There is also the phrase transitioner, "ga", in front of the indirect object (e.g. I gave it a cookie" would be "I ya a cookie ga it gave" or Ne ya epuba ga yelu daiwenu). There is also a phrase transitioner, "sa" that acts as a relative pronoun. (e.g. "The dog that bites" would be "Dog sa bites" or "Pangu sa bahevu"). The last phrase transitioner, "ja" turns a sentence into a noun. (e.g. If you wanted to say that you hated the fact that bob ran away, you would say "I ya ja bob away ran hate" or "Ne ya ja bob ene aram kamalevu kagenu")

Note: Word type transition inflections


Syntax DiagramEdit

File:Yimmu Tree.pdf

This link will bring you to a syntactic tree of a completely blown out Yimmu sentence. Refer to the list below for help with abbreviations

NN = noun

PP = postposition

PPP = postpositional phrase

NNP = noun phrase

DT = determiner

DTP = determiner phrase

AJ = adjective

AV = adverb

AJP = adjective phrase

VT = verb transitioner

VB = verb

SVP = subverb phrase

PT = subposition transitioner

SPP = subposition phrase

SBS = subject section

SBC = subject

ET = entity transitioner

ETP = entity transitioner phrase

OBS = object section

IT = indirect object transitioner

IOP = indirect object phrase

VBP = verb phrase

VS = verb section

PDC = predicate

S = sentence

LexiconEdit


No. English Yimmu
1INe
2you (singular)Me
3heVedu
4weNa
5you (plural)Ma
6theyRelu
7thisYelu
8thatJa
9herekab
10theresan
11who
12whatawta
13where
14when
15how
16notchi-
17alle-
18manyraha
19somemaga
20fewchiupu
21othertala
22onegu
23twoche
24threepi
25fourma
26fivete
27bigbung
28longsur
29widebas
30thickcheut
31heavyham
32smallnin
33shortnil
34narrowshut
35thinsang
36womanbul
37man (adult male)budj
38man (human being)
39childsangit
40wifegam
41husbanddum
42mothertam
43fathersar
44animalsaim
45fishpes
46birdchaj
47dogpung
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leafmer
57rootgav
58barkkirg
59flowerfal
60grasstul
61ropechin
62skinshan
63meatbar
64bloodshal
65boneg'rd
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204andch
205if
206because
207namenam


Example textEdit

Regular English:

"When will the cats be running to the store and scratching the little girls? Oh my! They have been giving me my candy!"

English words in Yimmu Grammar:

"Cats store to will be running and girls little scratching during what? Oh my! They my candy me have been giving!"

Yimmu:

Jamalu duki ai kamaliva chada ya balala nina chariva ul awta? Kari! Relu na ene ud chachi ga one tamevatu!

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