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Yipta

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Yipta
[jiɸtæ]
Type
Isolating
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
n/a
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Yipta, meaning roughly "correct speech" or "well-formed speech" is a language isolate spoken by a number of paleolithic hunter-gatherer bands living in a region of gently-rolling hills and oak woodlands. Its speakers have traditionally relied heavily on acorns as a staple food, but population pressure and increasing competition between bands over productive oak groves has led many to rely more heavily on smaller seeds, including wild varieties of wheat, barley, and peas. These people are unknowingly poised on the verge of the neolithic revolution.

PhonologyEdit

The phonemic inventory of Yipta is quite small, including 11 contrasting consonant phonemes and 4 vowel qualities, with no phonemic contrast in, length, stress, tone, or phonation. In the tables below, characters in parentheses represent the standard latinizations of the phonemes where they differ from their representation in the IPA.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p t k q ʔ (')
Fricative s ~ ʃ (s)
Approximant j (y) w
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Open-mid ɔ (o)
Near-open æ (a)

AllophonyEdit

Major sound rules in Yipta include the following:

/s/ is pronounced [s] before or after /a/ or /o/ and in clusters with /p/, /t/, and /l/. It is pronounced as [ʃ] before or after /i/ or /u/ and in clusters with /q/, /k/, /j/ and /w/. However, when multiple sibilants occur in the same word, they assimilate to the place of articulation of the final sibilant in the word, regardless of their immediate environment

There are a number of phonological processes that affect the stop phonemes /p, t, k, q/ in consonant clusters. Sequences of a glottal stop and a non-glottal stop are realized as the ejective stops [p', t', k', q'], while sequences of two identical stop consonants are realized as a single aspirated stop [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ, qʰ], except in the case of a sequence of two glottal stops, where the cluster simplifies to a single glottal stop.

Non-stop consonants behave similarly, becoming the glottalized allophones [s', ʃ', ˀm, ˀn, ˀl, ˀj, ˀw] in clusters with glottal stops and simplifying to clusters of the form [Ch] when geminated. I.e. /ll/ is pronounced [lh], /mm/ is pronounced [mh], etc. [h] in these clusters is a voiceless glottal transition with little to no friction at the place of articulation.

Between a vowel and another nonidentical, pre-glottal stop consonant, /p, t, k, q/ are realized as the non-sibilant fricatives [ɸ, θ̠, x, χ]. In intervocalic clusters of two stop consonants, certain consonants are "stronger" and more resistant to spirantization. The hierarchy, from "strongest" to "weakest" is as follows: t, p, k, q. So, between vowels, the cluster /pt/ would be pronounced [ɸt], while the cluster /pq/ would be pronounced [pχ]. A cluster like /yqt/, on the other hand, would be pronounced [jqθ̠], because /t/ is between a stop and a vowel, while /q/ is not.

Vowels are lowered and retracted before and after /q/: /i/ surfaces as [e], /u/ as [o], /a/ as [a̠] or [ɑ], and /o/ as the "over-rounded" back-open vowel [ɒ̹]. Vowels also display a degree of lowering and/or retraction in proximity to /k/, but how noticeable this is depends on the speaker.

PhonotacticsEdit

In general, the syllable structure of Yipta can be represented as (C)(C)V(C)(C), with some restrictions. A syllable must always have an onset or a coda; it may or may not have both, but no Yipta syllable consists of only a vowel.

Consonant clusters within syllables may consist of two dissimilar stops and/or nasals, a stop or nasal and an approximant, or a stop or nasal and /s/. Clusters involving approximants always obey the sonority hierarchy, such that one finds the syllable /tya/ but not /yta/ and the cluster /tna/ but not /nta/. /s/ patters more freely with stops in syllable-internal clusters, such that the syllable /spa/ contrasts with /psa/.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


VocabularyEdit


No. English Yipta
1Ika
2you (singular)pa
3hesa
4wekaka
5you (plural)papa
6theysasa
7thisli'
8thatlo'
9hereli'
10therelo'
11whoka'ka
12whatka'
13whereka'an
14whenka'as
15howma' ka'
16notqiw
17allmik
18manyim
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherlan
22onepak
23twoskam
24threemask
25fourmaskpak
26fivemaskam
27bigkil
28longlim
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavykilkil
32smallqiwkil
33shortqiwlim
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womananq
37man (adult male)'ay
38man (human being)ka
39childklaq
40wifeanq
41husbandanq'ay
42motherkliqanq
43fatherkliq'ay
44animalyaw
45fishmalyaw
46birdwak
47dogkak
48louseska
49snakepsa
50wormpsaqla
51treepna'
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedqiwkil'ap
56leafqap
57rootpal
58barkpni'at
59flowerasqap
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinat
63meatyaw'ap
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65bonesa
66fatyaw'apmal
67eggwak'ap
68horntqamwa'
69tailtlaq
70featherwakqap
71hairqat
72headsaq
73eartaq
74eyeqal
75nosenaq
76mouthaq
77toothaqsa
78tonguelaw
79fingernailtalaqsa
80foot'as
81legpam
82kneepamqa'
83handpa
84wingwakpa
85bellyklat
86gutskla
87neckna'
88backmat
89breastkat
90heart'alm
91liver'al
92drinkmalaq
93eataw
94bitesatal
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowwaplas
99breathelas
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeqal
102heartaq
103knowman
104think'alm
105smellnaq
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepwa
108liveka
109dieqsa
110killqso
111fightContionary_Wiki
112hunt'ay
113hitwap
114cutwa'
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118diglaq
119swimtyam
120flywak
121walktya
122comekam
123liemap
124sit'an
125standta'
126turna'
127fallay
128givepan
129holdpo
130squeezesnopo
131rubpowot
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pulllot
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwqa'
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayto
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floattyam
144flow'am
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellatlay
147sunas
148moonway
149starwayna
150watermal
151rainaymal
152rivermal'am
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltqwan
156stoneqa'
157sandqay
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthay
160cloudlaymay
161fogmay
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smoketaw
167firena
168ashqsa
169burnna
170roadmatya
171mountainlay
172redsin
173greenlip
174yellowsin
175whitewiw
176blacksiy
177nightsiyas
178dayas
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmwit
181coldtim
182fullqti'
183newimn
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodtip
186badqim
187rottenqim
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundip
191sharpwi'
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetmwin
195dryqwin
196correctyip
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atmi'
202in'ut
203withma'
204andi'
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207namekata


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