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Yorshaan Regular Verbs

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Most verbs in Yorshaan are regular. Generally speaking, there are three categories of the regular verbs:I, II, and III verb.

G-Verb (I)Edit

G stands for Gertiys, which means "strong" in Yorshaan, and G-Verb is litarally "Strong verb". Such idea was introduced by Ernst Lornis, a German linguist who researches in Yorshaan, in 1843.

Silimar to strong conjugation in Germanic languages, the apophony exists in G-verbs. There are three principle parts to memorize: present, past, and future tense.

I-A I-U I-Œ
Present a u œ
Past e i o
Future æ ai ie

The three subcategories of strong verb are sometimes called I-A verb, I-U verb, and I-Œ verb. (or A-verb, U-verb, and Œ-verb) Which category should a strong verb be in depends on the last vowel of the present tense principle.

The conjugation of strong verb is quite complex.

Conjugation of I-A verbs Person First Second Third
Tense Mood .../Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Present Realis Imperfect PRS+e PRS+es PRS+ec PRS+etc PRS+a PRS+ath
Progressive PRS+i PRS+is PRS+ic PRS+itc PRS+au PRS+auv
Perfect PRS+ihy PRS+ihyt PRS+ahy PRS+ahyt PRS+ohy PRS+ohyt
Participle PRS+iom(ei) PST+isiom(ei)
Infinitive PRS+eem, PRS+o- PST+ichents, PST+iche-
Optative Imperfect PRS+(o)sh PRS+(o)sht PRS+(o)l PRS+(o)lt PRS+(o)fram PRS+(o)frim
Perfect PRS+(o)shon PRS+(o)shton PRS+(o)lon PRS+(o)lton PRS+(o)frum PRS+(o)fruim
Subjunctive Imperfect FUT+atte FUT+attec FUT+atta
Perfect FUT+attihy FUT+attahy FUT+attohy
Imperative Passive PRS+ian PRS+ea
Antipassive PRS+eha PRS+aha
Past Realis Imperfect PST+e PST+es PST+ec PST+etc PST+a PST+ath
Progressive PST+i PST+is PST+ic PST+itc PST+as PST+auv
Perfect PST+ig PST+igt PST+ag PST+agt PST+og PST+ogt
Participle PST+in(ei) PST+isin(ei)
Infinitive PST+aav, pono- PST+idgents, PST+idge-
Optative Imperfect PST+(o)sh PST+(o)sht PST+(o)l PST+(o)lt PST+(o)fram PST+(o)frim
Perfect PST+(o)shon PST+(o)shton PST+(o)lon PST+(o)lton PST+(o)frum PST+(o)fruim
Subjunctive Imperfect FUT+euve FUT+euvec FUT+euva
Perfect FUT+euvihy FUT+euvahy FUT+euvohy
Future Realis Imperfect FUT+e FUT+es FUT+ec FUT+etc FUT+a FUT+ath
Progressive FUT+i FUT+is FUT+ic FUT+itc FUT+au FUT+auv
Perfect FUT+im FUT+imt FUT+am FUT+amt FUT+om FUT+omt
Participle FUT+any(ei) PST+isany(ei)
Infinitive FUT+iusi, FUT+o- PST+ishtents, PST+ishte-
Optative Imperfect FUT+(o)sh FUT+(o)sht FUT+(o)l FUT+(o)lt FUT+(o)fram FUT+(o)frim
Perfect FUT+(o)shon FUT+(o)shton FUT+(o)lon FUT+(o)lton FUT+(o)frum FUT+(o)fruim
Subjunctive Imperfect FUT+œshte FUT+œshtec FUT+œshta
Perfect FUT+œshtihy FUT+œshtahy FUT+œshtohy
Imperative Passive FUT+ian FUT+ea
Antipassive FUT+eha FUT+aha
Voice (as for partciple and infinitive) Passive Antipassive

Verbs formed by doubling its last vowel of the stem and adding an infix -ss- between the doubled vowels (in order to express negation) should change the doubled vowels at the same time. That is, the word "bœssœzeem" (be unable to do) has to change both "œ" of the stem. In other words, made bœssœzeg (it is unable to be dealed with.) → made bossozeg (it was unable to be dealed with.).

For all G verbs, its gerund is PST+aruu.

M-Verb (II)Edit

M refers to Mimiys, which means "small" in Yorshaan, in contrast to Gertiys. No vowels should be replaced or change in M-verbs. Such verbs are sometimes be called "weak verb", corresponding to G-verb, strong verb. Take the verb calaam (breath) for example:

Conjugation of II verbs Person First Second Third
Tense Mood .../Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Present Realis Imperfect calo caloir calof caloaf calei caleir
Progressive calu calur caluf caluaf caleu caleur
Perfect calet calat calot
Participle calain calœnhain
Infinitive calaam, calæ- calœmbul, calœmba-
Optative Imperfect calil calils caliel caliels calinth calenth
Perfect calilis calielis calinthis
Subjunctive Imperfect calodno calodnof calodnei
Perfect calodnet calodnat calodnot
Imperative Passive calan calaa
Antipassive caleha calaha
Past Realis Imperfect calavo calavoir calavof calavoaf calavei calaveir
Progressive calavu calavuir calavuf calavuaf calaveu calaveur
Perfect calaver calavar calavor
Participle calih(ei) calœnhih(ei)
Infinitive caloudon, cala- calœmnul, calœmna-
Optative Imperfect calavil calavils calaviel calaviels calavinth calaventh
Perfect calavilis calavielis calavinthis
Subjunctive Imperfect calezwo calezwof calezwei
Perfect calezwer calezwar calezwor
Future Realis Imperfect caloyyo caloyyoir caloyyof caloyyoaf caloyyei caloyyeir
Progressive caloyyu caloyyuir caloyyuf caloyyuaf caloyyeu caloyyeur
Perfect caloyyed caloyyad caloyyod
Participle calurj(ei) calœnhurj(ei)
Infinitive calunyuzh, calo- calœmyul, calœmya-
Optative Imperfect caloyyil caloyyils caloyyiel caloyyiels caloyyinth caloyyenth
Perfect caloyyilis caloyyielis caloyyinthis
Subjunctive Imperfect calœtco calœtcof calœtcei
Perfect calœtced calœtcad calœtcod
Imperative Passive caloyyan caloyyaa
Antipassive caloyyeha caloyyaha
Gerund calizhuu
Voice (as for partciple and infinitive) Passive Antipassive

D-Verb (III)Edit

D represents Doriys, which means Stillness in Yorshaan, in contrast to strong and weak verbs. D-verbs are less variable, and can be regarded as simplified verbs. The first and second person are merged.

butus (awake) Tesne Present Past Future
Mood .../Person First& Second Third First& Second Third First& Second Third
Realis Imperfect buto buta butot butat butoll butall
Progressive buton butan butont butant butolm butalm
Perfect butos butas butov butav butod butad
Participle butinc, butincei
butiajinc, butiajincei
butanty, butantei
butiajanty, buttiajantei
butesy, butesei
butiajesy, butiajesei
Infinitive butus, butui-
bututhis, butuithi-
butith, buti-
butithis, butithi-
butœus, butœe-
butœuthis, butœethi-
Optative Imperfect buti butin butim butimy butit butity
Perfect butia butian butiam butiamy butiat butiaty
Subjunctive Imperfect butu butun butum butumy butut bututy
Perfect butua butuan butuam butuamy butuat butuaty
Imperative Passive butaa butoza
Antipassive buteha butozeha

For III verbs, th greund has a suffix -iduu.

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