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Zerä

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Progress 73%
Zeran
Zerä
Type
?
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n (ɲ)
Plosive p b t d (c ɟ) k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ (ç ʝ) x χ
Affricate pf bv ts dz tʃ dʒ kx
Approximant w j
Flap or tap pɾ bɾ fɾ vɾ tɾ dɾ ɾ kɾ gɾ
Lateral app. pl bl fl vl l (ʎ) kl gl

VowelsEdit

Open Closed Nasal Semivowel
a ə an
ɛ e en
i in j
ɔ o on
u un w

AlphabetEdit

Roman Cyrillic Pronunciation Equivalent
B Б /b/ bell
C Х /x/ house - something like it
D Д /d/ day - but it is hard
F Ф /f/ force
G Г /g/ get - but it is hard
H Я /χ/ something like the French R
J Ж /ʒ/ measure
K К /k/ color - but it is hard
L Л /l/ light
M М /m/ man
N Н /n/ now
P П /p/ pull
R Р /ɾ/ rope - without the w-like sound
S С /s/ site
T Т /t/ tale - but it is hard
V В /v/ victory
X Ш /ʃ/ ship
Z З /z/ zap
W Ђ /w/ wait
Y Ј /j/ young
A А /a/ cow
E Э /ɛ/ red
I И /i/ sheep
O Ө /ɔ/ law
U У /u/ root
 І /ə/ bird
Ê Е /e/ day
Ô О /o/ know
Ä Ӓ /an/ under
Ë Ӟ /en/ pen
Ï Ӥ /in/ been
Ö Ӫ /on/ fond
Ü Ӱ /un/ soon

There is no difference between upper case and lower case. They are seem only as different typographic fonts.

PhonotacticsEdit

  • The stress is always in the penultimate syllable.
  • The onset can only be one of the consonants, affricates or combinations with R/L.
  • The nucleus always has a vowel and may begin or end with a semivowel.
  • The coda must be nothing or a single unvoiced fricative (except x).
    • Some clusters are allowed between syllables and in the end of the word: ks kʃ ps pʃ px fx tx.
    • The word can end with an unvoiced affricate.
  • The same vowel cannot be the next phoneme (aa, ee...).
  • Some sequences are not allowed: sz sʃ ij wu.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No Yes No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No Yes No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No Yes No No No No No No


GendersEdit

The genders are:

  • Everything: It is the global gender that includes everything. It is used when the specific gender is unknown.
    • Animal: It includes humans, animals, ghosts, gods, aliens and some other living things.
      • Collective: Those are the collective nouns, such as group, folk, team and company.
      • Male: Everything that is male.
      • Female: Everything that is female.
    • Object: Plants, objects and places.
    • Abstract: Abstract concepts, such as time, happiness and power.

The difference are in the determiners.

The gender Animal is used when one does not know if an person or animal is male or female. It is also used in the plural when both genders are included.

PronounsEdit

English Zeran
I/Me
You (singular)
We/Us (excludes you) nyus
We/Us (includes you) töy
You (plural) vôw

The definite articles without the noun are used as the third-person pronouns.

HonorificsEdit

In some cases, the honorifics replace the second-person pronoun and the third-person pronoun and they are also used as vocative.

Person Male Female
parent, grandparent dada mämä
spouse amu kêra
boss, leader lora kwida
teacher sësu sôra
older one lyega sïra
very polite (other cases) dôkô zoyä

DeterminersEdit

The nouns do not change with the plural. The plural is marked in the determiners.

Definite articlesEdit

Gender Singular Plural
Everything kow kowx
Animal zoy zoyx
Collective tura turax
Male xôx
Female le lex
Object bäx
Abstract sôy sôyx

Indefinite determiners and correlativesEdit

Role Determiner Place Time Noun
Everything Animal Collective Male Female Object Abstract
Near me lapse lakse latse lakow lazoy latura laxô lale labä lasôy
Near you jepse jekse N/A
Away from us (visible) löpse lökse lötse
Away from us (non-visible) drapse drakse dratse
a (singular) txi (it means number one) txikse txitse
some (uncountable) tximê txiskse txistse
some (plural) txix txixkse txixtse
no/none/nothing zedza (it means number zero) dzâkse dzâtse
all/every alo alokse alotse
generic hafkâ hafâkse hafâtse
question pwa pwakse pwatse
relative (restrictive) wêkse wêtse
relative (explicative) yôkse yôtse
  • tximê is used with uncountable nouns. It is also used with countable nouns when one does not know the quantity (if it is plural), and in the negative and in the interrogative (meaning "any").

NounsEdit

They are not inflected.

Adjectives Edit

The adjective is always inserted after the noun, or in the beginning or in the end of the sentence. The adjectives are inflected with suffixes according to the case.

The noun can be omitted and the adjective can be inserted alone.

Number Noun Nominative Objective Prepositional
Singular - -ays -eys -oys
Plural - -aws -ews -ows
  • The plural form is not used with nouns in the plural, it is used when the subject or object has multiple members.
  • The prepositional case is used with nouns in adverbs or adnominals.

VerbsEdit

The infinitive uses the suffix -af.

Nominal formsEdit

Form Suffix
Present participle -äni
Past participle -adju
Present gerund -önu
Past gerund -odji
  • The infinitive can be used as a noun that names the action.
  • The gerunds and the participles can be used as nouns. They can receive an adjective suffix to be used as adjectives.

IndicativeEdit

Tense Perfective Progressive Habitual
Past -ôy -ow -alo
Present N/A -ey -ale
Future -ïu -üa -ala
  • The infinitive suffix is replaced with one of these suffixes.
  • Stative verbs cannot be conjugated in the perfective.

Stage aspectEdit

Aspect Prefix
Inceptive côs-
Pausative sos-
Resumptive ras-
Cessative (canceled) käs-
Cessative (finished) vus-
  • The prefixes are optional.

Relative-tense aspectEdit

The relative tenses are expressed with auxiliary verbs followed by the main verb in the infinitive. They can only be used in the past or future tenses and the aspect must be perfective

Aspect Verb
Retrospective hadaf
Prospective ceklaf

SubjunctiveEdit

  • Conjunctive
  • Hypothetical
  • Conditional

ImperativeEdit

Person Suffix
You (singular) -ay
You (plural) -âw
We -ädu

Verbal particlesEdit

These are particles inserted after the verb to change the verb.

Role Particle
Negative nütô
Interrogative verö
Reflexive hasde
Opposite änö
Immediate süne
  • The interrogative is used in yes/no questions. It is not used in questions with other interrogative words.
  • The negative does not mean opposite. "do not like" does not mean "dislike". The opposite does.
  • Those particles can also be inserted after an adjective to change it.
  • süne means immediate past or future.

Other auxiliary verbsEdit

  • bleskyaf: It means that a possibility exists (may).
  • provonaf: Causative.
  • ïmugaf: It means that something is in a state to start doing something.
  • dêzaf: Any movement (go, come, leave, arrive).
  • ïdzaf: The identity/Classification copula (to be a, to be the).
  • likraf: The locative copula.
  • sëtaf: The copula that represents states.
  • fijucaf: The copula that represents characteristics.

SyntaxEdit

Basic sentenceEdit

Any word order related to subject-verb-object is possible. The first term has more emphasis, but it does not change the semantics. The grammatical function is marked with prepositions. The nominative does not use preposition.

Role Preposition
Accusative
Dative, lative pwa
Ablative pye
Reciprocal rüka

Any term can be omitted from the sentence. If the subject is omitted, it means that it is known according to the context, or it is not important because the important info is the consequence for the object.

Adverbial particlesEdit

Many prepositions and particles have three cases: adverbial, nominative and objective. The two latter are adnominals that add info to the nouns.

Role Adverbial Nominative Objective
Locative zëy zëna zëynï
Instrumental fëw fëna fëwnï
like ges gena gesnï
instead jox joxna jownï

Other prepositionsEdit

Role Preposition
Genitive, possessive djä

Relative clausesEdit

They are started with a relative pronoun and ended with the particle puyu. There is no special rules regarding the relative clauses. The third-person pronoun can be used to refer to the noun which it is talking about or the term can be omitted.

Subordinate clausesEdit

They start with the conjunction wäs and ends with the particle puyu.

Nested clauses do not end with multiple puyu. They end with a single puyu and may be ambiguous.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Zeran
1I
2you (singular)
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)vôw
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thislapse
8thatContionary_Wiki
9herelakse
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanluën
37man (adult male)vazas
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childtôrôrô
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishkaözê
46birdvlôta
47doginura
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakemädru
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeborê
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitgofus
55seednëdra
56leafhoydja
57rootzarêtsu
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerjetay
60grassxêpê
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodwogatü
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67egghovâ
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailhatxê
70featherfësta
71hairpiluga
72headxayko
73earotrê
74eyeôydax
75nosesabeya
76mouthsobüx
77toothdrapë
78tongueafirä
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80foottxöga
81legmuledjis
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handmacöy
84wingbwaska
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartkrôna
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunlaris
148moonlulu
149starsutelya
150waterwazu
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaumini
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthtera
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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