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Zerä

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Zeran
Zerä
Type
?
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n (ɲ)
Plosive p b t d (c ɟ) k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ (ç ʝ) x χ
Affricate pf bv ts dz tʃ dʒ kx
Approximant w j
Flap or tap pɾ bɾ fɾ vɾ tɾ dɾ ɾ kɾ gɾ
Lateral app. pl bl fl vl l (ʎ) kl gl

VowelsEdit

Open Closed Nasal Semivowel
a ə an
ɛ e en
i in j
ɔ o on
u un w

AlphabetEdit

Roman Cyrillic Pronunciation Equivalent
B Б /b/ bell
C Х /x/ house - something like it
D Д /d/ day - but it is hard
F Ф /f/ force
G Г /g/ get - but it is hard
H Я /χ/ something like the French R
J Ж /ʒ/ measure
K К /k/ color - but it is hard
L Л /l/ light
M М /m/ man
N Н /n/ now
P П /p/ pull
R Р /ɾ/ rope - without the w-like sound
S С /s/ site
T Т /t/ tale - but it is hard
V В /v/ victory
X Ш /ʃ/ ship
Z З /z/ zap
W Ђ /w/ wait
Y Ј /j/ young
A А /a/ cow
E Э /ɛ/ red
I И /i/ sheep
O Ө /ɔ/ law
U У /u/ root
 І /ə/ bird
Ê Е /e/ day
Ô О /o/ know
Ä Ӓ /an/ under
Ë Ӟ /en/ pen
Ï Ӥ /in/ been
Ö Ӫ /on/ fond
Ü Ӱ /un/ soon

There is no difference between upper case and lower case. They are seem only as different typographic fonts.

PhonotacticsEdit

  • The stress is always in the penultimate syllable.
  • The onset can only be one of the consonants, affricates or combinations with R/L.
  • The nucleus always has a vowel and may begin or end with a semivowel.
  • The coda must be nothing or a single unvoiced fricative (except x).
    • Some clusters are allowed between syllables and in the end of the word: ks kʃ ps pʃ px fx tx.
    • The word can end with an unvoiced affricate.
  • The same vowel cannot be the next phoneme (aa, ee...).
  • Some sequences are not allowed: sz sʃ ij wu.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No Yes No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No Yes No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No Yes No No No No No No


GendersEdit

The genders are:

  • Everything: It is the global gender that includes everything. It is used when the specific gender is unknown.
    • Animal: It includes humans, animals, ghosts, gods, aliens and some other living things.
      • Collective: Those are the collective nouns, such as group, folk, team and company.
      • Male: Everything that is male.
      • Female: Everything that is female.
    • Object: Plants, objects and places.
    • Abstract: Abstract concepts, such as time, happiness and power.

The difference are in the determiners.

The gender Animal is used when one does not know if an person or animal is male or female. It is also used in the plural when both genders are included.

PronounsEdit

English Zeran
I/Me
You (singular)
We/Us (excludes you) nyus
We/Us (includes you) töy
You (plural) vôw

The definite articles without the noun are used as the third-person pronouns.

HonorificsEdit

In some cases, the honorifics replace the second-person pronoun and the third-person pronoun and they are also used as vocative.

Person Male Female
parent, grandparent dada mämä
spouse amu kêra
boss, leader lora kwida
teacher sësu sôra
older one lyega sïra
very polite (other cases) dôkô zoyä

DeterminersEdit

The nouns do not change with the plural. The plural is marked in the determiners.

Definite articlesEdit

Gender Singular Plural
Everything kow kowx
Animal zoy zoyx
Collective tura turax
Male xôx
Female le lex
Object bäx
Abstract sôy sôyx

Indefinite determiners and correlativesEdit

Role Determiner Place Time Noun
Everything Animal Collective Male Female Object Abstract
Near me lapse lakse latse lakow lazoy latura laxô lale labä lasôy
Near you jepse jekse N/A
Away from us (visible) löpse lökse lötse
Away from us (non-visible) drapse drakse dratse
a (singular) txi (it means number one) txikse txitse
some (uncountable) tximê txiskse txistse
some (plural) txix txixkse txixtse
no/none/nothing zedza (it means number zero) dzâkse dzâtse
all/every alo alokse alotse
generic hafkâ hafâkse hafâtse
question pwa pwakse pwatse
relative (restrictive) wêkse wêtse
relative (explicative) yôkse yôtse
  • tximê is used with uncountable nouns. It is also used with countable nouns when one does not know the quantity (if it is plural), and in the negative and in the interrogative (meaning "any").

NounsEdit

They are not inflected.

Adjectives Edit

The adjective is always inserted after the noun, or in the beginning or in the end of the sentence. The adjectives are inflected with suffixes according to the case.

The noun can be omitted and the adjective can be inserted alone.

Number Noun Nominative Objective Prepositional
Singular - -ays -eys -oys
Plural - -aws -ews -ows
  • The plural form is not used with nouns in the plural, it is used when the subject or object has multiple members.
  • The prepositional case is used with nouns in adverbs or adnominals.

VerbsEdit

The infinitive uses the suffix -af.

Nominal formsEdit

Form Suffix
Present participle -äni
Past participle -adju
Present gerund -önu
Past gerund -odji
  • The infinitive can be used as a noun that names the action.
  • The gerunds and the participles can be used as nouns. They can receive an adjective suffix to be used as adjectives.

IndicativeEdit

Tense Perfective Progressive Habitual
Past -ôy -ow -alo
Present N/A -ey -ale
Future -ïu -üa -ala
  • The infinitive suffix is replaced with one of these suffixes.
  • Stative verbs cannot be conjugated in the perfective.

Stage aspectEdit

Aspect Prefix
Inceptive côs-
Pausative sos-
Resumptive ras-
Cessative (canceled) käs-
Cessative (finished) vus-
  • The prefixes are optional.

Relative-tense aspectEdit

The relative tenses are expressed with auxiliary verbs followed by the main verb in the infinitive. They can only be used in the past or future tenses and the aspect must be perfective

Aspect Verb
Retrospective hadaf
Prospective ceklaf

SubjunctiveEdit

  • Conjunctive
  • Hypothetical
  • Conditional

ImperativeEdit

Person Suffix
You (singular) -ay
You (plural) -âw
We -ädu

Verbal particlesEdit

These are particles inserted after the verb to change the verb.

Role Particle
Negative nütô
Interrogative verö
Reflexive hasde
Opposite änö
Immediate süne
  • The interrogative is used in yes/no questions. It is not used in questions with other interrogative words.
  • The negative does not mean opposite. "do not like" does not mean "dislike". The opposite does.
  • Those particles can also be inserted after an adjective to change it.
  • süne means immediate past or future.

Other auxiliary verbsEdit

  • bleskyaf: It means that a possibility exists (may).
  • provonaf: Causative.
  • ïmugaf: It means that something is in a state to start doing something.
  • dêzaf: Any movement (go, come, leave, arrive).
  • ïdzaf: The identity/Classification copula (to be a, to be the).
  • likraf: The locative copula.
  • sëtaf: The copula that represents states.
  • fijucaf: The copula that represents characteristics.

SyntaxEdit

Basic sentenceEdit

Any word order related to subject-verb-object is possible. The first term has more emphasis, but it does not change the semantics. The grammatical function is marked with prepositions. The nominative does not use preposition.

Role Preposition
Accusative
Dative, lative pwa
Ablative pye
Reciprocal rüka

Any term can be omitted from the sentence. If the subject is omitted, it means that it is known according to the context, or it is not important because the important info is the consequence for the object.

Adverbial particlesEdit

Many prepositions and particles have three cases: adverbial, nominative and objective. The two latter are adnominals that add info to the nouns.

Role Adverbial Nominative Objective
Locative zëy zëna zëynï
Instrumental fëw fëna fëwnï
like ges gena gesnï
instead jox joxna jownï

Other prepositionsEdit

Role Preposition
Genitive, possessive djä

Relative clausesEdit

They are started with a relative pronoun and ended with the particle puyu. There is no special rules regarding the relative clauses. The third-person pronoun can be used to refer to the noun which it is talking about or the term can be omitted.

Subordinate clausesEdit

They start with the conjunction wäs and ends with the particle puyu.

Nested clauses do not end with multiple puyu. They end with a single puyu and may be ambiguous.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Zeran
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)vôw
6they
7thislapse
8that
9herelakse
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36womanluën
37man (adult male)vazas
38man (human being)
39childtôrôrô
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fishkaözê
46birdvlôta
47doginura
48louse
49snakemädru
50worm
51treeborê
52forest
53stick
54fruitgofus
55seednëdra
56leafhoydja
57rootzarêtsu
58bark
59flowerjetay
60grassxêpê
61rope
62skin
63meat
64bloodwogatü
65bone
66fat
67egghovâ
68horn
69tailhatxê
70featherfësta
71hairpiluga
72headxayko
73earotrê
74eyeôydax
75nosesabeya
76mouthsobüx
77toothdrapë
78tongueafirä
79fingernail
80foottxöga
81legmuledjis
82knee
83handmacöy
84wingbwaska
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heartkrôna
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sunlaris
148moonlulu
149starsutelya
150waterwazu
151rain
152river
153lake
154seaumini
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earthtera
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


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