Type agglutenative
Alignment nom acc
Word Order free
Head direction SOV
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Classification and DialectsEdit

Zhanlika is a language designed by adam and osswix as a cooperative language.  It is an highly agglutenative language with hinty kitchen-sinky grammar.



Consonants bilabial dental alveolar retroflex palatal velar glottal
nasal m n ɲ ŋ
ejective stop
aspirated stop [tʰ] [kʰ]
unvoiced stop [p] [t] [k]
voiced stop b d
unvoiced fricative ɸ θ s ʂ [ç] h
voiced fricative ð z ʐ ɣ
approximant l j w
tap [ɾ]
trill r


vowels front unrounded center/back unrounded back rounded
high i ɨ u
mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
low ɑ


A basic notation of the phonotactics could be (C)(M)V(F) where, C is any consonant, M is a medial which depends on the initial consonant, V is any vowel and F is any final consonant.

The final consonant can only be nasals, stops, /s/, /l/ or /r/.

The medial can always be /j/, /w/ and /r/, but after stops also /s/ can occur, after nasals also /l/ can occur.


/h/ is pronounced as [ç] before /i/.
/tʼ/ and /kʼ/ are pronounced [t] and [k] respectively word finally.
/b/ and /d/ are pronounced [p] and [t] respectively word finally.
/tʼ/ and /kʼ/ are pronounced [tʰ] and [kʰ] respectively word initially.
/n/, /ɲ/ and /ŋ/ are pronounced [ɾ], [j] and [ŋɣ] intervocally.
/n/ and /ɲ/ are both pronounced as [m] before any bilabial consonant (mb and ɸ).
/tʼ/, /kʼ/ are pronounced as [t] and [k] respectively before an /s/.
/s/ is pronounced [z] after /b/ and /d/.

Writing SystemEdit


letter m n nj ng t k b d f st r
sound m n, ɾ, m ɲ, j, m ŋ, ŋɣ tʼ, t, tʰ kʼ, k, kʰ b, p d, t ɸ θ r
letter s sh h zd z zh g l j w '
sound s,  z ʂ h, ç ð z ʐ ɣ l j w

' is used to seperate possible digraphs from actual single graphs (an example with minimal pairs would be /ɲa/ vs /nja/ which would be written as nja and n'ja respectively.)


letter i e v o a u y
sound i ɛ ʌ ɔ ɑ u ɨ

in the handwritten latin variant v is actually written like ʌ

vowel harmony Edit

harmony variants unrounded round
front back back
neutral vowels a
high vowels i y u
mid vowels e v o

The vowels have a harmony, where i /i/ + e/ɛ/ and u /u/ + /ɔ/ cannot occur in the same word. The first 'strong' vowel (either i, e, u or o) that occurs in the root of a word is the vowel everything harmonizes to. If a word doesn't contain any of the vowels i, e. u or o (thus only cointains the vowels a, y and v) it is considered a 'neutral root' and suffixes do not change (unless there is a suffix or compound that creates a 'strong' root). strong o/u roots are roots where the first 'strong' vowel is either o or u. strong e/i roots are roots where the first 'strong' vowel is either e or i. All other vowels harmonize to these roots (in a root contradicting vowels cannot occur). The vowels of suffixes and compounds might change depending on the harmony, u and o change to y and v respectively in strong e/i roots and i and e change to y and v respectively in strong o/u roots. an example with the suffix in :

 mal (neutral root) + in > malin
 mon (strong o/u root) + in > monyn
 mik (strong e/i root) + in > mikin

an example with the suffix om :

 mal (neutral root) + om > malom
 mon (strong o/u root) + om > monom
 mik (strong e/i root) + om > mikvm



noun template
defeniteness-locational prefixes stem number - posession suffixes case suffix compounding suffix
location/definiteness position root class plurality posession

All affixes but the root are optional.


function prefix
definite / neutral -
indefinite i / y
proximal an
medial tak
distal gem / gvm


function prefix
in me / mv
on n'je / n'jv
under ok / vk
in front mwen / mwvn
behind twet / twvt
left of n'ji / n'jy
right of my
before n'jo / n'jv
after ek / vk


function suffix
animal in / yn
plant nyr
eatable tam
usable ton / tvn
decorative tyd
abstract om / vm


function suffix
singular -
paucal jen / jvn
plural sam


function suffix
1st sg em / vm
1st pl inc sam
1st pl ex ejem / vjvm
2nd sg ad
2nd pl ejad / vjad
3rd sg yk
3rd pl ijyk / yjyk


function suffix
nominative tan
accusative ted / tvd
genitive gem / gvm
ablative / elative lyn
adessive / inessive leen / lvvn
allative / dative rvm
qualitative den / dvn
instrumental / commitative fen / fvn
topic hym


function suffix
describing-equal an
describing-inequal jana
non-describing-equal ym
non-describing-inequal jymy
and jel / jvl


noun template
nominative-tense prefixes stem accusative-aspect(3) suffixes mood-aspect(2) suffixes
person (nominative) tense root aspect(1) person (accusative) aspect (3) mood aspect (2)


person nominative prefix accusative suffix
1 me / mv man
2 ja jak
3 ko / kv kom / kvm
1 (polite) mere / mvrv manan
2 (polite) jana janek / janvk
3 (polite) konnv / kvnnv kommvn / kvmmvn


tense prefix
present -
past n
historic past net / nvt
future fan


aspect (1) suffix
initiative in / yn
momentane ten / tvn
terminative on / vn
aspect (2) suffix
continuous im / ym
perfect ol / vl
habitual iminim / ymynym
segmentive olymym / vlymym
gnomic imil / ymyl
aspect (3) suffix
attemptive aran
intentional al
accidental matan


mood suffix
conditional den / dvn
imperative du / dy
optative ba
potential kat
interrogative nem / nvm
clairifying n'ja
agreement hem / hvm


Example textEdit

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