Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Mostly Head-Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Two
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Mahoke

Zhathena [ʒa.'ð] is mostly a personal language, but I'm also in the process of connecting it to a specific society and culture. Zhatena is the language spoken by a small group of people called the Zhurivi on an island in the eastern Mediterranean. This language was in existence during the Ancient Greek period, but has no apparent relation to other languages of the area and was wiped out very quickly after it came into contact with the Greek language. This was a very peaceful society in which towns and regions were governed by guilds of primarily female poets. Poetry and song were very important and good, artistic, lyrical writing and speaking skills were seen as proof of intelligence, strength, and wisdom. (all this is subject to change, this language is very new and unformed)

Classification and DialectsEdit



Zhathena has sixteen consonant sounds.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive b t d k
Fricative v ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant j
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


Zhathena has seven vowel sounds, including five pure vowel, one diphthong, and one reduced vowel.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e
Mid ə
Open ɑ

The lone diphthong is /ej/.

Stress PatternsEdit

Stress most commonly occurs on the penultimate syllable, with a few exceptions, which will be noted as they appear. The only regular exception to the rule of penultimate stress is the creation of the singular accusative case. When the accusative suffix [k] or [ɪk] is added, the stress remains on the same syllable it was on before the addition of the inflectional accusative suffix. Besides this, all irregular stresses will be noted.


Writing SystemEdit

I'm just using simple IPA throughout this grammar. There will be a different writing system eventually, but it's not my priority right now.




Nouns have singular and plural numbers and nominative and accusative cases.

There are several irregular declining nouns which will be marked (irg).

Singular nominative Edit

The nominative case of singular nouns may end in a vowel or consonant.

Singular accusative Edit

With a few exceptions, adding the suffix [-k] to the nominative singular indicates accusative case. Allomorphy occurs, with [-k] attaching to nouns that end in an open syllable and [-ɪk] attaching to nouns that end in a closed syllable.

Plural nominative Edit

The plural nominative is formed by attaching a suffix to the singular. Allomorphy occurs, with the suffix [-a] attaching to closed syllables and [-si] attaching to open syllables. Adding these suffixes shifts the stress to the syllable directly preceding the suffix. Occasionally, the antepenultimate syllable will undergo vowel reduction or the penultimate syllable will undergo vowel "expansion" as stress is moved to it (as in the word [miðɪn], see below).

Plural accusative Edit

The plural accusative is formed by adding the suffix [-k] to the plural nominative form. The stress and vowel reduction patterns remain the same.


zar - boy singular plural
nominative zar zara
accusative zarɪk zarak
ʒura - woman singular plural
nominative ʒura ʒərasi
accusative ʒurak ʒərasik
miðɪn - girl singular plural
nominative miðɪn miðena
accusative miðɪnɪk miðenak
maʃal - day (irg)    singuar plural
nominative maʃal maʃla
accusative maʃlak maʃlak

Pronouns Edit

Because verbs decline significantly, these nominative pronouns are rarely used. They can be used for emphasis. Although there is a gender distinction in the pronouns, it is rarely used in the subject position. [ʒej] is used as the assumed pronoun for humans, if gender is neither male or female, unknown, or unimportant – although this distinction is generally only made in the accusative and dative cases since this is a null-subject language.

I you (sg) he/it she/gender-neutral we you(pl) they
nominative im tej ʒej zej vej sa
accusative ma tak ʒa za va sak
dative emi eʃi tak ʒak za va sak


Present Tense Edit

Verbs that conjugate regularly will have the suffix [-at] in the infinitive form and will take these suffixes in conjugation:

singular plural
1st person -ej -ejsi
2nd person -i -asi
3rd person -a -as

Past Tense Edit

Verbs that conjugate regularly will add the suffix [-iv] before the personal endings to express past tense:

singular plural
1st person -ivej -ivejsi
2nd person -ivi -ivasi
3rd person -iva -ivasi

Future Tense Edit

Imperatives Edit

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives decline in nominative and accusative cases like nouns do, but there is no plural distinction. Common adjective suffixes are [-je] and [-lɪs], although there is no consistent way of marking adjectives. These suffixes are mostly used to create new adjectives from nouns or verbs, but they also appear in several of the most commonly used adjective in the language.

ʒaje - good

nominative ʒaje
accusative ʒajak

vitaðelɪs - smart

nominative vitaðelɪs
accusative vitaðelisɪk
asejza - complete singular/plurla
nominative asejza
accusative asejzak

Comparative and Superlative Edit

Zhathena has both positive and negative comparatives and superlatives

The postive comparative and superlative are marked by two suffixes: [-ul] in the comparative, and [-ural] in the superlative.

The negative comparative and superlative are marked by two suffixes: [-ed] in the comparative, and [-eðal] in the superlative.

When attaching to the common adjective suffix [-je], these comparative and superlative suffixes removed the [e].


least strong less strong strong stronger strongest
nominative vibareðal vibared vibar vibarul vibarural
accusative vibareðalɪk vibaredɪk vibarɪk vibarulɪk vibaruralɪk
least small less small small smaller smallest
nominative mijeðal mijed mije mijul mijural
accusative mijeðalɪk mijedɪk mijak mijulɪk mijuralɪk

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs are either identical to their adjective counterparts, or can be derived by adding the suffix [-hu] after removing the adjective suffixes [-je] or [-lɪs], if necessary.

complete ––> completely : asejza ––> asejzahu

good –––> well, good (adverb) : ʒaje ––> ʒahu



Main article: Zhathena Lexicon

Example textEdit

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