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Zonschévy

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Zonschévy
Type
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 96%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words of 1500
Creator Laymnin



PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive tʲ dʲ dⁿ g (ʔ)
Fricative ɸ β θʲ ðʲ s z ɕʲ ʑʲ x h
Affricate pɸ bβ ʲ dʑʲ kx
Approximant w j
Trill r ʀ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close ɪ (ʏ) (ʊ)
Close-mid e o
Mid (ə)
Open-mid ɛ œ
Open a

Vowels are lengthened when preceding voiced consonants.

/ʏ/ is the unstressed form of /y/.

/ə/ is the unstressed form of /e/ and /ɛ/.

/ʊ/ is the unstressed form of /u/ and /o/.


GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are marked according to case and number.

There are 6 cases: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive, Reflexive, and the rare Prepositional case.

PronounsEdit

1st person 2nd person 3rd person (F) 3rd person (M/N) 1st person pl. 2nd person pl. 3rd person pl.
Nominative ybj nebj zhebj kobj ylebj nelebj selebj
Accusative yvj nevj zhevj kovj ylevj nelevj selevj
Dative ytj netj zhetj kotj yletj neletj seletj
Genitive jit nes zhes kio yvle nevle slevle
Reflexive ythj nethj zhethj kothj ylethj nelethj selethj
Prepositional ychj nechj zhechj kochj ylechj nelechj selechj

CorrelativesEdit

Proximal Distal Existential Universal Negatory Interrogative1
Determiner nel wo me he
Choice hemi
Thing téle nele wole mele kéle hele
Person hein
Time tézh nezh wozh mezh kézh hezh
Place téske nelske woske meske kédske heske
Manner tégab nelgab wogab hegab
Reason témol nelmol hemol

1 The Elective and Interrogative Forms are identical.

General DeclensionEdit

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Ref. Prep.
Singular -(i)bj -(i)vj -(i)tj -(i)wj -(i)thj -(i)chj
Plural -(i)lebj -(i)levj -(i)letj -(i)lewj -(i)lethj -(i)lechj

Diminutives and AugmentativesEdit

Diminutive I (size/quantity) -chu -shu -vu
Diminutive II (affectionate) -chna -shna -vna
Diminutive III (respect) -chi -shi -vi
Diminutive IV (strength/intensity) -che -she -ve
Augmentative I (size/quantity) uro- uvo- véo-
Augmentative II (authority) dova- deva- krœna-
Augmentative III (reverence) dovæ- devæ- krœnæ-
Augmentative IV (strength/intensity) ura- uva- véa-

VerbsEdit

All verbs have three components: the stem, the root vowel, and the N-ending. Verbs are conjugated to tense (past, present, future), aspect (simple, progressive, perfect), mood (indicative, subjunctive, imperative), and voice (active, passive). 

In most cases, except for some irregular auxiliary forms, the stem remains unmodified.

The root vowel determines the class of the verb and how the verb is conjugated.

The N-ending of a verb comes in two forms: -n, where nothing but -n comes after the root vowel, and -Cn, where consonant(s) and vowel(s) are between the root vowel and -n. The type of ending also affects how the verb is conjugated.

The verbs used for auxiliary purposes are: deyn (to do), heyn (to finish), zædn (to be like), bonn (to become), and zeyn (to be).

Class 1 (-ey-): Verbs of MotionEdit

Class 1 verbs are mainly verbs that involve motion, progression, and comsumption.

Infinitive Form: -eyCn

Indicative
Present Past Future
Active Simple -eyC1 -eyCo 1s -eyCf 1 or -eynen
Progressive dey Inf.2 deys Inf. deynen Inf.
Perfect hey ze-Inf. heys ze-Inf. heynen ze-Inf.
Passive Simple bon Inf. zey Inf.
Perfect bon ze-Inf. zey ze-Inf.
Subjunctive
Present Past Future
Vowel Change Simple -œCt -œCost -œCf or -œh
Perfect hœt ze-Inf. hœst ze-Inf. hœh ze-Inf.
Auxiliary Simple zæd Inf. zæts Inf. zæth Inf.
Perfect zæd ze-Inf zæts ze-Inf zæth ze-Inf
Passive Simple bynk Inf. zœt Inf.
Perfect bynk ze-Inf. zœt ze-Inf.


1C is the additional consonant, Co is the unvoiced consonant, and Cf is the fricative consonant

2Inf. is the infinitive

Class 2 (-o/oy-): Verbs of ChangeEdit

Class 2 verbs are mainly verbs that involve speech, perception and change.

Infinitive Form: -oCn, -oyCn

Indicative
Present Past Future
Active Simple -o(y)C -o(y)Cos -eyCv 1j
Progressive dey Inf. deys Inf. deynen Inf.
Perfect hey ge-Inf. heys ge-Inf. heynen ge-Inf.
Passive Simple bon Inf. zey Inf.
Perfect bon ge-Inf. zey ge-Inf.
Subjunctive
Present Past Future
Vowel Change Simple -yCk -yCosk -yCvjk
Perfect hœt ge-Inf. hœst ge-Inf. hœh ge-Inf.
Auxiliary Simple zæd Inf. zæts Inf. zæth Inf.
Perfect zæd ge-Inf zæts ge-Inf zæth ge-Inf
Passive Simple bynk Inf. zœt Inf.
Perfect bynk ge-Inf. zœt ge-Inf.

1 Cv is the voiced consonant

Class 3 (-æ-): Verbs of StateEdit

Class 1 verbs are mainly verbs that involve modality, emotion, and thought.

Infinitive Form: -æCn

Indicative
Present Past Future
Active Simple -æC -æCos -æCf  or -æh
Progressive dey Inf. deys Inf. deynen Inf.
Perfect hey be-Inf. heys be-Inf. heynen be-Inf.
Passive Simple bon Inf. zey Inf.
Perfect bon be-Inf. zey be-Inf.
Subjunctive
Present Past Future
Vowel Change Simple -oCv -oCosf -oCfp
Perfect hœt be-Inf. hœst be-Inf. hœh be-Inf.
Auxiliary Simple zæd Inf. zæts Inf. zæth Inf.
Perfect zæd be-Inf zæts be-Inf zæth be-Inf
Passive Simple bynk Inf. zœt Inf.
Perfect bynk be-Inf. zœt be-Inf.

Universal FormsEdit

Gerund Attributive Affirmative Negative Polar Agent Imperative Optative
-es -de + (case marker) dodt kédt hemét -(n)in -(Co)tur -(Co)tæ

ModalityEdit

Modal VerbsEdit

Verb rætn nædn kædn jæln bædn gæln
Meaning May (to be allowed) Can (to be able) May (to be possible) Should (to suggest) Must (to be compelled) Would (to be willing)

Modal ParticlesEdit

  • ja, ha: (sentence-final) declarative
  • ja: (precedes addressee) vocative, exclamatory
  • ne: (sentence-final) makes a statement rhetorical
  • cha: (sentence-final) suggestion
  • jo: (sentence-final) gives the sentence a tone of reminding the addressee
  • vu: (sentence-final) applies a diminutive tone to the entire sentence

AdjectivesEdit

All adjectives end in a vowel and precede the noun that they modify. If used as a predicative, the case ending is not required and the adjective comes after the subject.

Case EndingsEdit

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Ref. Prep.
Singular -b -v -t -w -th -ch
Plural -ble -vle -tle -wle -thle -chle

AdverbsEdit

-zæ is the ending attached to turn adjective into an adverb. Adverbs come before the verbs they modify.

ComparativesEdit

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Ref. Prep.
Comparative Singular -urb -urv -urt -urw -urth -urch
Plural -urble -urvle -urtle -urwle -urthle -urchle
Superlative Singular -dub -duv -dut -duw -duth -duch
Plural -duble -duvle -dutle -duwle -duthle -duchle

AdpositionsEdit

Most adpositions are prepositions, some of which have postpositional and adverbial forms. The noun that complements the adposition will decline based on the direction of motion designated by the speaker. If the direction of motion is toward a location, the noun will be accusative; if it is moving away, dative. Tf the motion is oblique to, or if there is no motion at all, the locative case is used.

List of Adpositions Edit

Prepos. Postpos. Adverb. Prepos. Postpos. Adverb.
by, next to vi during jon
near vonj vœnj between vren
with, in the company of ve through(out) bron brœn gxen
by means of ved from bon bœn
back in time voth vœth vyth around ben
behind, (adv.) back bod bœd to do
after in a sequence vod vœd voth until vos vœs
forward in time veth væt for the purpose of ryv
in front, (adv.) forward czhe den for the sake of fre
before in a sequence ven veth at a place tjo cj

left (of)

dev chev at a time czho cj

right (of)

kreh krœh across dum
in, (adv.) inside nyth nith njev against dus
out, (adv.) outside nat nand without œnt
on, (adv.) over dœft dœnd except œd
above, (adv.) up dœns dœf dof
off, (adv.) under gœn wœnd wond
under, (adv.) down wons wœns krœn

ConjunctionsEdit

List of ConjunctionsEdit

  • no: but
  • zo: because (of)
  • ve: and
  • gab: if
  • za: as, in the same manner as

NumbersEdit

Cardinal Numbers Edit

  • kéd: 0
  • wyd, wy-: 1
  • nyzh, ny-: 2
  • sruf, sru-: 3
  • zych, zy-: 4
  • non, non-: 5
  • xux, xu-: 6
  • schot, scho-: 7
  • bred, bre-: 8
  • gox, go-: 9
  • theb, ta-: 10
  • tawyd/taud: 11
  • tanyzh: 12
  • nytheb, nyta-: 20
  • srutheb, sruta-: 30
  • zytheb, zyta-: 40
  • nontheb, nonta-: 50
  • xutheb, xuta-: 60
  • schotheb, schota-: 70
  • bretheb, breta-: 80
  • gotheb, gota-: 90
  • bov, ba-: 100
  • sraps, sra-: 1000
  • tasraps, tasra-: 10000
  • siri, siri-: 10000 (archaic)

Ordinal Numbers Edit

Ordinal Numbers are formed adding the prefix i-.

SyntaxEdit

Due to the extensiveness of the case system, word order can be very flexible. However, the basic word order is SVO, where the indirect object precedes the direct object. The affirmative dodt and the negative kédt most come directly before the verb, even if word order is changed.

A more detailed version of word order:

  • Subject
  • Affirmative/Negative
  • (Direct/Auxiliary) Verb
  • Indirect Object
  • Time
  • Place
  • Manner
  • Direct Object
  • Main Verb
  • Adverb

Order of Importance Edit

Instead of using SVO word order, words can arranged based on order of importance like a topic-comment system. The topic(s) would be placed at the beginning of the sentence, and would then be followed by a VSO comment. A sentence can have no more than two topics before the verb. Relative clauses follow topic-comment word order and are introduced by the marker da.

Questions Edit

Questions are treated like topic-comment sentences, where the interrogative acts as the topic. If the question is polar, then the polar marker treated as the topic.

Subjunctive Word Order Edit

Sentences with subjunctive forms of a verb can either have an SVO or VSO word order. VSO word order is more common in formal writing and old-fashioned speech, though there would be no distinction between a formal statement and the interrogative of the SVO form. Therefore, a question involving the subjunctive in the formal form must be introduced by the polar marker hemét.

Multiple Verbs Edit

If there are multiple verbs in a sentence, the direct verb (the action that the subject performs) is treated as the verb of the sentence, and the main verb (the verb being influence by the action) is treated as an object that follows all other objects.

  • Ex. Ybj kédt næd zhevj roln. (1st-person-nom. not can-pres. fem.-acc. call) [I cannot call her.] næd is the direct verb that influences the main verb roln. roln is treated as an object and is placed at the end of the sentence.
  • Ex. Ybj kédt næts zhevj geroln heys. (1st-person-nom. not can-pres. fem.-acc. call-pluperf.) [I could not have called her.] The typical order of the present perfect heys geroln has been reversed due to the presence of næts. Note that the usage of heys in this sentence is permitted (though highly formal and almost never used in speech), and matches the conjugation of nædn.

A verb whose conjugation involves an auxiliary also follows this behavior. However, if the sentence is arranged based on topic-comment (with the main verb being the topic), then the direct verb is moved to the end.

  • Ex. The question "Have you called her before?" can be written in two ways: Hey nebj zhevj geroln vyth? or Geroln nebj zhevy vyth hey?

Writing SystemEdit

Pre-ReformationEdit

Letter A a ay B b C c D d Ð ð E e Ä ä ey F f G g H h
Sound a aːı bβ ʲ dʲ ðʲ ɛ, ə e eːı ɸ g h
Letter I i J j K k L l M m N n O o Ö ö oy P p R r S s
Sound i, ı ʲ kx l m n o œ oːı pɸ r, ʀ s
Letter T t Þ þ U u V v Ƿ w Ɣ ɣ Ȝ y Z z Ʃ ʃ Ʒ ʒ Ü ü
Sound θʲ u, ʊ β w, ʷ x j, ʲ z ɕʲ ʑʲ y, ʏ

Post-ReformationEdit

Letter A a Æ æ B b C c D d dh E e É é ey F f G g H h
Sound a aːı bβ s d ðʲ ɛ, ə e eːı ɸ g h, x
Letter I i J j K k L l M m N n O o Œ œ oy P p R r S s
Sound i, ı j, ʲ kx l m n o œ oːı pɸ r, ʀ s
Letter T t th U u V v W w X x Y y Z z sh zh ch czh
Sound t θʲ u, ʊ β w, ʷ x y, ʏ z ɕʲ ʑʲ ʲ ʲ

VocabularyEdit

http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Zonschevy/Lexicon

Example textEdit

Sample Sentences Edit

  1. Czhe zheschj dovævchyl tjozey ybj tézhchj cj.
    1. In front of your-PREP seat-AUG appear I at this time-PREP.
    2. Before your throne, I now appear.
  2. Ja gdeytur, zonrushchu, téske cj nebj dodt bon yletj hælen mezh.
    1. -VOC come-IMP, Spring-DIM, here you indeed PASS- us -loved always.
    2. O come, Spring, here you are always loved by us.
  3. Kobj kédt da gekopln nebj heys, no dodt da beisljæn nebj heys.
    1. It not that said-PERF you had, but indeed that meant-PERF you had.
    2. It wasn't what you said, but it was what you meant.
  4. Miryble soltable inilebj jon gunjodchj, zo kédt sæ deyend vogeyn.
    1. Many-PL-NOM drunk-ATTR-PL-NOM human-PL-NOM during September-PREP, because want-NEG work return.
    2. There are many drunk people during September, for they do not want to go back to work.
  5. Zeylttur yl'bj wo!
    1. Drink-IMP we some!
    2. Let's drink.
  6. Kopsh nebj zonschévy? Nebj kédt zæd ylevj lælemn.
    1. Speak you Zonschévy? You seem-NEG us understand.
    2. Do you speak Zonschévy? You don't seem to understand us.
  7. Zwætur nand, ræpttur cj, geytur dof ve den.
    1. Sit-IMP out, stand-IMP at, move-IMP up and forward.
    2. Sit up straight, stand up straight, and walk steadily. (Made to fit the rhythm of 坐要直,立要正,行走要稳健)
  8. Dzheytæ kobj bron sraps zyryl!
    1. Live-OPT he through thousand years!
    2. May he live a thousand years!

Text Edit

Zonschévy

Gloss Translation
Zo véakalpe rol ybj nevj. Because of pain-AUG call I-SUB you-ACC From deep affliction I cry out to you
Ja krœnæ, shloytæ jitvj rolesvj! Lord-VOC, hear-OPT my call-GER Lord God, hear my call;
Do ytj, greytæ nesbj thaneb shlanbj , To me, descend-OPT you-GEN-SUB kind ear Incline your merciful ear here to me,
ve hylætæ jitvj wondoles. And consider-OPT my beg-GER and be open to my prayer!
Zo nebj dodt koyly, za nebj shæs, Because you-SUB indeed see, as you-SUB believe, Since You behold, according to Your will,
me keræesl' ve dagtl' da deyn bon, all sins and acts of hatred that done-PASS, what sin and injustice is done,
ja krœnæ, hein næd vi nechj ræptn? Lord-VOC, who can by you-PREP stand? who can, Lord, remain before you?

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