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Zuraher

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Name: Zuraher

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Direct

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Velar Pharyngeal
Stop p b t d k g
Nasal m ɱ n
Trill ʙ r
Fricative ɸ β s z x ɣ ħ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɰ
Lateral Fricative l ʟ

Additionally, the following consonants exist: ɧ, ʍ, ʰ, ʷ, ˠ.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ u
Mid-Close e ø ɘ o
Mid-Open ɛ œ ɜ ɔ
Open ɶ ɑ ɒ

OrthographyEdit

Phone(s) Orthography
p, p̙2 P
b, b̙2 B
t T
d D
k, x1 K
g, ɣ1 G
m, ɱ2 M
n N
ʙ, β5 V
r RR
ɸ F
s S
z Z
ħ H
ʋ W
ɹ R
ɰ J
l, ʟ3 L
ɧ X
ʍ HW
ʰ h
ʷ w
ˠ j
ɨ, i4 I
ɜ, ɘ4 E
ɛ, e4 Ë
u U
y Ü
ɔ, o4 O
œ, ø4 Ö
ɑ, ɒ4 A
ɶ Ä

NotesEdit

  1. Before or after Ä, Ë, Ö, Ü. If K is to remain /k/, it becomes CK (C initially). If G is to remain /g/, it becomes Q.
  2. Before or after W as /ʋ/.
  3. After velars.
  4. Stressed (See Stress below).
  5. As a final consonant.

PhonotacticsEdit

  • A standard syllable is of the form (s)(C)(TR/A/LA)(j,w)V(j,w)(N)(C/AF), where the following are true:
    • C is any consonant
    • TR is a trill
    • A is an approximant
    • LA is a lateral approximant
    • V is a vowel
    • N is a nasal
    • AF is an affricate
    • (s) is Field 1, (C) is Field 2, and (TR/A/LA) is Field 3.
  • If Field 2 is a fricative and Field 3 is used, then Field 1 cannot be used (e.g. vl, *svr)
  • If Field 2 is H, then Fields 1 and 3 cannot be used (e.g. hat, *shler)
  • Field 2 cannot be a nasal if Field 3 is used (e.g. naf, *nlaf)
  • If E is used as a final letter, it is either reduced to /ə/ or muted.

StressEdit

Stress falls on:

  • Monosyllabic words (Drómpf).
  • The first syllable of disyllabic words (Sckő|lad).
  • The second syllable of tri- and quadrisyllabic words (A|stér|naf).
  • Every third syllable but the last, starting from the second, on words of 5+ syllables (Sfar|ján|to|ver|ikk).
  • Irregular stress is marked with a grave accent (Cől|en|di|ko|re).

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are divided into three classes ("Genders") by their final letter:

  • I: Ends in a consonant (gant - "man")
  • II: Ends in an unaccented vowel (dampfe - "grass")
  • III: Ends in an accented vowel (stü - "water")

They decline by case and number as follows:

I II III
S P S P S P
Nom/Acc gant gante dampfe dampfes stü stün
Dat ganta gantaj dampfi dampfis stu stus
Gen gants gantes dampfa dampfis stuj stujn

There are certain irregularities, namely with words ending in N and S. Both are Class I special cases.

cün - "wind" [modern] öres - "stone, gem"
S P S P
Nom/Acc cün cünne öres öres
Dat cüna cünna öra öraj
Gen cüns cüns örs ören

ArticlesEdit

Articles must agree with their nouns' class and number.

I II III
S P S P S P
Definite het hete de des dën
Indefinite en ene a as e en

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate by person, number, gender/formality and tense, with affixes to further augment conjugation. In the third person, the verb must agree with its actor's class. All other persons are Class I.

Infinitive cöler - "to speak"
Present I II III
1s cöl
2sI (informal) cölde
2sII (formal) Cölen
3sI (masc/neut) cöl cöle cölen
3sII (fem) cölej cölja cölen
1p cöler
2p cölend
3pI (masc) cöler cölere cöleren
3pII (fem) cölerej cölerja cöleren
3pIII (neut) cöleri cölere cöllen
Past I II III
1s cölge
2sI (informal) cölged
2sII (formal) Cölgen
3sI (masc/neut) cölge cölgë cölgen
3sII (fem) cölgej cölga cölgen
1p cölger
2p cölgend
3pI (masc) cölger cölgere cölgeren
3pII (fem) cölgerej cölgera cölgeren
3pIII (neut) cölgeri cölgre cölgen
Perfect I II III
1s cölte
2sI (informal) cölte
2sII (formal) Cölten
3sI (masc/neut) cölte cöltë cölten
3sII (fem) cöltej cölta cölten
1p cölter
2p cöltend
3pI (masc) cölter cöltere cölteren
3pII (fem) cölterej cöltera cölteren
3pIII (neut) cölteri cöltre cölten
Pluperfect I II III
1s cölgete
2sI (informal) cölget
2sII (formal) Cölgeten
3sI (masc/neut) cölgete cölgete cölgeten
3sII (fem) cölgetej cölgeta cölgeten
1p cölgeter
2p cölgeted
3pI (masc) cölgeter cölgetere cölgetren
3pII (fem) cölgetrej cölgetra cölgetren
3pIII (neut) cölgeti cölgetre cölgeten
Progressive [root] + ess[e] + [conjugation] cöl + ess + er = cölesser
Future vir + [Present/Perfect] vir + cöler = vircöler
Supine [root] + ant cöl + ant = cölant
Imperative (2sI) [Pres 2sI] + enti! cölde + enti! = cöldenti!
Imperative (2p) [Pres 2p] + enti! cöled + enti! = cöledenti!
Imperative (1p) [Pres 1p] + enti! cöler + enti! = cölerenti!
Formal Imperative (2sII) [Pres 2sII] + dikore! Cölen + dikore! = Cőlendikore!
Subjunctive [root] + em[e] + [conjugation] cöl + em + er = cölemer
Gerundive [root] + desi cöl + desi = cöldesi
Participle [root] + endre cöl + endre = cölendre

"To be"Edit

The verb ver ("to be"), and other verbs with monosyllabic infinitives, use a different system of conjugation where the infinitive is the same as the root in most cases (except Pres 1p and 3pI-III). Ver itself conjugates irregularly in the present.

Present I II III
1s fi
2sI (informal) vid
2sII (formal) Vin
3sI (masc/neut) fi fe fen
3sII (fem) fej fa fen
1p ver
2p vend
3pI (masc) ver vere veren
3pII (fem) vej va ven
3pIII (neut) vri vere veren
Past [root] + ge+ [conjugation] ver + ge + er = verger
Perfect [root] + te + [conjugation] ver + te + er = verter
Pluperfect [root] + gete + [conjugation] ver + gete + er = vergeter
Progressive [root] + ess[e] + [conjugation] ver + ess + er = vesser: veste, veske, vestte
Future vir + [Present/Perfect] vir + ver = virer: virde, virge,...
Supine [root] + ant ver + ant = verant
Imperative (2sI) [root] + ti! ver + ti! = verti!
Imperative (2p) [root] + denti! ver + denti! = verdenti!
Imperative (1p) [root] + enti! ver + enti! = verenti!
Formal Imperative (2sII) [root] + dikore! Ver + dikore! = Verdikore!
Subjunctive [root] + em[e] + [conjugation] ver + em + er = vemer: vembe, venge, vempe
Gerundive [root] + desi ver + desi = verdesi
Participle [root] + endre ver + endre = vendre

Modal VerbsEdit

Modal verbs are used conjugated, with the verbs they augment becoming supine.

can eber
may derber
should virimer
must dikrer
might veminer
want varrer
wish irhaler
ought nezer
need ditanter

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal Pronouns must agree with the verbs they are agent to, or the nouns they possess.

Nominative I1 II III
1s wa
2sI (informal)
2sII (formal) Dure
3sI (masc) hu huwe huwen
3sII (fem) ho ha howen
3sIII (neut)2 han handre hawen
1p uris
2p dure
3pI (masc) hwer hwere hweren
3pII (fem) hwej hwera hweren
3pIII (neut) hweri hwere hwen
Acc/Dat I1 II III
1s bo
2sI (informal) 3
2sII (formal) Dur
3sI (masc) hun hunje huwe
3sII (fem) hon han howe
3sIII (neut)2 hanan hanade hawe
1p üre
2p dur
3pI (masc) hweren hweren hweren
3pII (fem) hwejn hweran hweren
3pIII (neut) hwerin hweren hwen
Gen/Pos I1 II III
1s ba
2sI (informal) türe
2sII (formal) Dure
3sI (masc) hus huwes huwens
3sII (fem) hos has howens
3sIII (neut)2 hans handres hawens
1p üren
2p dure
3pI (masc) hweres hweres hwerens
3pII (fem) hwejs hweras hwerens
3pIII (neut) hweris hweres hwens
Reflexive [Accusative] + ger bo + ger = boger
Exceptions I1 II III
3sI (masc) - hungerje hugere
3sII (fem) hanger hogere
3sIII (neut)2 hangerade hagere
3pI (masc) hwegeren hwegeren hwegeren
3pII (fem) hwegejn hwegeran hwegeren
3pIII (neut) hwegerin hwegeren hwegen
NotesEdit
  1. Used for unknown subjects.
  2. 3sIII pronouns take 3sI verbs.
  3. tür in Dative

Indefinite PronounsEdit

Nom/Acc/Dat A
Gen/Pos Anes
Reflexive Ager

Impersonal PronounsEdit

Nom/Acc Query Relative This That Every All Some/Few None Many/Most
which1 un aren tin dan gön gon sem zen cön
who1 ur gör gor zer
what1 u time dame ze
where2 egi egren awr dawr göegi gog sembi zegi
when2 nagi nagren gönagi goni semagi si cöni
why2 ira raje draje göraje gorje semira zejra
how2 ara aren arri darri görri gorri sevi zerri cörri
NotesEdit

1. The following table shows dative and genitive versions of certain impersonal pronouns.

Dative [Nom] + [w]a un + a = una; u + wa = uwa
Genitive [Nom] + [e]s un + s = uns; ur + es = ures

2. These pronouns are always dative.

NumbersEdit

The Zuraher counting system is base 10. Additionally, numbers ending in 1 or 2 and multiples of powers of ten are declined.

Number I II III
0 zen
1 en a e
2 cöt/kod* cöte/kode* cöten/koden*
3 kath
4 peder
5 ho
6 sanam
7 adam
8 asi
9 ön
10 ets etse etsen
11 ense ensa ense
12 cötte cötte cötten
13 etkath
17 etadam
20 cötsel cötselle cötsellen
21 cötselen cötsela cötsele
30 kathsel kathselle kathsellen
40 pedersel pederselle pedersellen
60 sanamsel sanamselle sanamsellen
100 jagir jagir jagirne
101 jagiren jagira jagire
120 jagir cötsel jagir cötselle jagir cötsellen
300 kathagir kathagir kathagirne
800 asigir asigir asigirne
1000 irohal irohalle irohallen
10000 mengel mengelle mengellen
100000 adinal adinalle adinallen
  • Note: Kod is an alternate pronunciation of cöt used by some speakers to distinguish 2 from 12.

Numerical DerivationsEdit

Ordinals [number] + erid asi + erid = asierid
EXCEPT: en + erid = nejrid
Fractions [numerator]-[denominator] + eth [en-]ets + eth = etseth
Frequency [number] + rin ho + rin = horin
Multiples [number] -> [plural] sanam -> saname
EXCEPT: en -> enham, aham, ejn
cöt -> cöttam, cötes, cötin

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives have a nominal (noun) form and a verbal (verb) form. Both forms must agree with the class of the words they modify.

  • Nominal forms describe nouns, and precede those they adhere to.
  • Verbal forms are the predicates of nouns that state the description of the object rather than passively describing them.

The following tables describe the decliensions/conjugations of adjectives, using the root garid (big) as an example. Note that there is no participle form of the adjectives; participles themselves are adjectives.

Nominal I II III
S P S P S P
Nom/Acc garid garde garde gardes gardë gardën
Dat garda gardaj gardi gardis garde gardes
Gen garids gardes garda gardis gardej gardejn
Verbal (Present) I II III
1s garid
2sI (informal) garde
2sII (formal) Garden
3sI (masc/neut) garid garde garden
3sII (fem) gardej gardja garden
1p garder
2p gardend
3pI (masc) garder gardere garderen
3pII (fem) garderej garderja garderen
3pIII (neut) garderi gardere garren
Past [root] + ig + [conjugation] garid + ig + er = gardiger
Perfect [root] + it + [conjugation] garid + it + er = garditer
Pluperfect [root] + iget + [conjugation] garid + iget + er = gardigeter
Progressive [root] + ess[e] + [conjugation] garid + ess + er = gardesser
Future vir + [Present/Perfect] vir + garder = virgarder
Supine [root] + ant garid + ant = gardant
Imperative (2sI) [Pres 2sI] + enti! garde + enti! = gardenti!
Imperative (2p) [Pres 2p] + enti! gardend + enti! = gáredenti!
Imperative (1p) [Pres 1p] + enti! garder + enti! = gárderenti!
Formal Imperative (2sII) [Pres 2sII] + dikore! Garden + dikore! = Gárdendikore!
Subjunctive [root] + em[e] + [conjugation] garid + em + er = gardemer
Gerundive [root] + ens garid + ens = gardens
Adverbial [root] + ig garid + ig = gardig
Comparative [root] + ir + [conj/decl] garid + ir + e = gardire
Superlative [root] + iner + [conj/decl] garid + iner + e = gardinere

Misc. DerivationsEdit

Causative [root] + dapf garid + dapf = gardapfer
Transitive/Self-Causative ger + [causative] ger + gardapfer = gergardapfer
Material [root] + agra dujk + agra = dujkagra -> dukag
Actor [root] + eni cöl + eni = cöleni
Feminine (honorary) [root] + erge cënd + erge = cënderge
Lack [root] + zen cün + zen = cünzen
Diminutive [root] + pik cün + pik = cümpik
Augmentative [root] + gar moj + gar = mojgar
Opposite + [root] zë + sine = zësine
Noun Participle [root] + irin gant + irin = gantirin
Grouping [root] + cön dampfe + cön = dampfecön
Specialist [root] + er zurah + er = zuraher
Essence/Adj. Gerundive [root] + ens moj + ens = mojens

PrepositionsEdit

Prepostions may take different cases based on context.

English Zuraher Accusative Dative Genitive
through ö
for ver
against gig
without zege
with gesse
around oran
about jan
until tink
since sën
out oz
in gren
outside ozirel
inside grenirel
from nag
except exe
by an
at er
toward rejirel
to [rej]
of fan
opposite koge
adjacent are
on (horiz.) frad
on (vert.) wal
off hand
behind enter
after luj
up/over/above awr
down/under/below ur
before nedre
between ni
among (3-5) mi
among (6+) gi
as wije

ConjunctionsEdit

The class of the last conjuncted word determines that of the overall phrase.

and i
but var
or do
if hwe
else hwezen
while irend
yet vajr
first nerig
also jern
then algrig
last lawig
instead stal

Word Order and Sentence StructureEdit

Basic SentencesEdit

Subject-Predicate SentencesEdit

For subject-predicate sentences, the word order is SVO (as in English).

E.g. Wa sker de thoma.
1s.NOM read.1s.PRES the.IIs book.ACC.
"I read the book."

Sentences with Indirect Objects and Subordinate ClausesEdit

For sentences with indirect objects (such as Time, Manner, Place,...) and subordinate clauses, the word order is SOV, as in German.

E.g. Hu Kronfalka igite.
3sI.NOM Kronfalk.DAT go.3sI.PERF.
"He went to Kronfalk (Greenwood)."
Wa videmet en gant hu ho galdis nag nedre dange.
1s.NOM see.1s.SBJ.PERF a.Is man.ACC who.3sI five cat.Ip.ACC from before have.3sI.PAST.
"I may have seen a man who once had five cats."

QuestionsEdit

Yes-No questions have the word order VSO. If a specific answer is needed, a query pronoun can be used.

E.g. Vin Dure en zuraherge?
be.2sII.PRES 2sII.NOM a.Is magician.female.ACC?
"Are you a sorceress?"
Eben Dure u vürrant?
can.2sII.PRES 2sII.NOM what.ACC cast.SPN
"What can you cast?"

Relative ClausesEdit

Relative clauses are formed with either use of the relative pronoun aren, or a comma delimiting it from the main sentence.

E.g. Uris hejer, gowen i arev aredinere fan rutes vri.
1p.NOM believe.1p.PRES, air.NOM and sun.NOM holy.Ip.SPRL of element.PL.ACC be.3pI.PRES.
"We believe [that] air and sun are the holiest of elements."

NegationEdit

Sentences can be negated by inserting the word ze before the word. If the verb is ver, it is simply replaced with the appropriately conjugated form of zer (to not be/do).

E.g. Wa ze a vorge!
1s.NOM not.1s.PRES a.IIs bird.ACC!
"I am not a bird!"

Noun PhrasesEdit

Noun phrases are head final, unless a subordinate clause is used; said clause then follows the head.

E.g. Des cötte searis hwerge timewa aredhejma awrgoptere....
the.IIp twelve.II pillar.IIp.NOM that.3pIII.NOM this.Dat tepmle.Is.DAT hold-up.3pIII....
"The twelve pillars that hold up this temple...."

Passive SentencesEdit

Sentences can be made passive by using the main verb as a participle and conjugating the progressive form of ver.

E.g. Han veske hun nag zurkig cölendre.
3sIII.NOM be.3sI.PAST.PROG 3sI.DAT from previously speak.PART.
"It was previously mentioned by him."

Adjective AnaphoraEdit

In certain discourses, adjectives can be substituted with the particle zu.

E.g. Ur de-krainer? Wa zu.
who.Q.NOM be-the-strongest.3sI.PRES? 1s.NOM ANA.
"Who is the strongest? I am."

DictionaryEdit

Swadesh ListEdit

English Zuraher
one en; a; e
two cöt; cöte; cöten
three kath
four peder
five ho
black karej
white lek
red; orange lona
green kron
yellow majon
good göd (benevolent); semke (delicious); vën (friendly); hirun (productive)
bad büs (malevolent); slekte (disgusting); karnis (hostile); fal (unproductive)
new ekte
old zaril (age); aleg (ancient)
warm verme
cold frej
dry darub
wet heari
sharp penner
dull
near awrin
far dawrin
big garid/garde
small piklin
long/tall sear
short stimpf
wide
narrow
thick dück
thin vitte
heavy zënam
light(weight) nam
few sem
many cön
some sem
all gon
dirty fendirin
correct vallo
rotten slekte
smooth arina
straight owig
other ern
earth hemp
ice naid
stone öres
fire kje
ashes kjefend
smoke kjejaru
dust fend
salt
sand
day arev zore -> arzor
night sova zore -> sozor
year passe
rain sflu
snow naidik
cloud lekempik -> legnik
fog lekens
wind cün; jaru (archaic)
sky zore
sun arev
moon sova
star sovik
mountain doma
woods falek
lake
river
sea
road menna
head kath
neck el
back genz
belly darrum; garid jarugor
hand gran
leg kalig
foot end
skin dender
ear egur
eye enze
hair cölig
mouth girin
nose enem
tongue lega
tooth zuth
blood lonstü
bone stag
guts
heart ersë
liver
meat strampf
animal kesta
bird vorge
egg iqë
feather
wing
dog wane
fish eska
worm
tail
tree avori
flower dromi
fruit
grass dampfe
leaf
bark
seed
stick tadre
root utsu
human argön
man gant
woman arge
child vili
father arida; riri
mother mena; mene
wife/husband rothe
fear amini
name imaji
rope
live rafiher
die siner
kill karner
sleep unurer
come
walk gepper
float irnalpikker -> irbiker
fly irnaler
swim sumver
turn totser
stand searer
sit kesser
lie down urkesser
fall sopfer
eat sener
drink stür
bite visser
blow ozlejer
breathe kuwant lejer -> kulejer
suck grenlejer
vomit
see viser
hear öder
smell enemer
know
think
say cöler
laugh
count njummer
play alleger
hunt
sew
throw forger
wash hirer
wipe
fight
hit kosser
cut/stab penner
tie
dig
hold gopter
give hasser
push ozgopter
pull grengopter -> greker
rub wamper
scratch kritter
squeeze kusser
burn kje senant lejer
flow kuwer
freeze naidapfer
split
swell gardapfer -> gadfer
and i
because raje
if hwe
not ze
at er
in gren
with gesse
I wa
you (sing.) tü; Dure
he hu; huwe; huwen
we uris
you (pl.) dure
they hwer; hwere; hweren
this tin
that dan
here awr
there dawr
how ara
what u
where egi
when nagi
who ur

Rosenfelder ExtensionEdit

English Zuraher
zero zen
half
quarter
six sanam
seven adam
eight asi
nine ön
ten ets
hundred jagir
thousand irohal
blue/cyan/indigo/purple este
brown karimajon -> karma
dark karirens -> karns
light lekrjens -> lerns
beautiful moj
ugly zëmoj
fast sibon
slow agübon
first nerig
last lawig
hard
soft
full vol
empty
smart
stupid
real
fake
upper awirin
lower urrin
expensive
cheap
sweet
sour
strong kraj
weak
different
same
young
hot kalid
clean sänt
wrong erril
rough
crooked
glad janna
happy solirin
sad
tired
angry
crazy
careful
lucky ebri
wise
foolish
healthy
sick
important
interesting
boring
wonderful
strange
funny
easy
difficult
alone
free
normal
special
probable
secret
air cün
glass
iron
gold
silver
nature
world
land
week
month
yesterday
today
tomorrow
morning
afternoon
spring
summer/early autumn
autumn/winter
hill
farm
field dampfecön
island
body gor
lip
breast
butt
muscle
brain
cat galdi
cow
chicken
horse
pig
mouse
monkey
lion
bug
grain
bread
branch
girl
boy
girlfriend
boyfriend
friend
baby
family
sister
brother
son
daughter
king cënd
boss
leader
servant
god/goddess
devil
temple aredhejm
holy ared
evil
soul rav
sin
city
street
tavern
house hejm
room
wall
window
door
table
chair
bed
corner
school
class
lesson
teacher
test
food
lunch
dinner
wine
milk
clothes
pants pasini
dress falxe
shoe
hat
machine
tool
boat
clock
key
net
wagon
wheel
wire
box
bag
bottle
cup
plate
knife
music
art
magic zurah
science
vacation
picture
game
language cöldigar
word
book
pen
paper
page
idea
message
story
symbol
example
part
number njum
manner
group
thing
system
list
event
reason
fact
space
time zet
map
money
price
worth
debt
shop
honor
shame
war
peace
government
law
council
tax
crime
prison
minister
square
circle
line
edge
side
be ver
seem
born
work
wake
dream
cook
use
grow gardapfer
write
read
translate
create
study
learn
copy
love
hate
like
care
want
wish
marry
understand
believe
doubt
expect
remember
forget
hope
worry
regret
surprise
can
must
should
begin
finish
intend [to do]
habitually do
cause
mean
measure
place
touch
taste
answer
ask
thank
greet
lie
joke
call
offer
choose
leave
go igir
follow
hide
run
roll
dance
kiss
smile
cry
point
annoy
hurt
destroy
trick
allow
meet
help
put
take
have
build
fold
add
buy
sell
need
get
lose
search
find
trade
keep
open
close
cover
but var
or do
through ö
until tinak
toward rejirel
for ver
without zege
against gig
on frad (horizontal surfaces); wal (vertical surfaces)
about jan
behind enter
across awr...ni
over awr
under ur
perhaps
indeed
thus
now
then algrig
again
next
very
too
enough
please
thank you
you're welcome
welcome to...
hello
goodbye
yes
no ze

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