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Zuthuinin

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Zuthuinin
Sotómim
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal mʲ m ɱ nʲ n ŋ
Plosive pʲ p bʲ b dʲ d k
Fricative ɸ f fʲ v θ z ʒʲ ʒ h
Affricate
Approximant l ɻ
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close /i/
Near-close /ʊ/
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid /ɛ/
Near-open /ɐ/
Open

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound Name
А а ɐ Am
B b b Ba
Bj bj Bjé
C c t͡ʃ Ca
D d d Da
Dz dz d͡z Dza
Dj dj Djé
Е е ɛ Em
F f f Fa
Fj fj Fjé
G g ʒ Ga
Gj gj ʒʲ Gjé
H h h Ha
I i i Im
K k k Ka
L l l La
M m m Ma
Mj mj Mjé
N n n Na
Nj nj Njé
O o ʊ Om
P p p Pa
Ph ph ɸ Pha
Pj pj Pjé
Q q k
R r ɻ Ra
R̜ r̜ r R̜a
S s z Sa
T t θ Ta
V v v Va

PhonotacticsEdit

Stress Edit

  • There is no set stress rule. Stress is unpredictable and depends on the certain word.
  • To indicate stress, the rising accent: ̌ is added to vowels. This alters the sounds some vowels make.
    • é sounds like /eɪ/
    • í sounds like /iuː/
    • ó sounds like /ɔɪ/

Clusters and Clustering Edit

  • Vowels are never clustered, paired, or duplicated beside itself. A vowel is usually alone or beside a consonant.
  • Impossible consonant clusters include:
    • T + C
    • G + H or Gj + H
    • S + T

Phonological Constraints Edit

  • Zuthuinin typically allows (C)V(C)(V)(c)(t)
    • (c) stands for optional C ending and (t) stands for optional T ending.
  • Words cannot end with an I or Í

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

GenderEdit

There are only three specified genders in Zuthuinin including masculine, feminine, and neuter. Genders are recognized by adding the respective particles after the subject.

  • Neuter is applied to subjects that are either inanimate and have no gender, or subjects that can possibly be either masculine or feminine.
    • Neuter genders are indicated by adding the particle naf
  • Masculine is applied to subjects that are male such as a man, a boy, or a male dog.
    • Masculine genders are indicated by adding the particle vec
  • Feminine is applied to subjects that are female such as a woman, a girl, or a female cat.
    • Feminine genders are indicated by adding the particle vic

CasesEdit

There are only 8 cases used in Zuthuinin. Cases are shown by adding the respective suffixes onto the end of the word and changes depending on if the noun ends in a consonant or a vowel. Singular and plurals are formed an added prefix that also alters if the noun begins with a vowel or a consonant.

Nouns That End in a Vowel
Case Suffix Njása (World)
Accusative -rem Njásarem
Instrumental -vé Njása
Nominative -na Njásana
Objective -bó Njása
Ablative -nip Njásanip
Dative -mos Njásamos
Genitive -hif Njásahif
*Vocative -maq Njásamaq
  • Vocative is not used very often
Nouns That End in a Consonant
Case Suffix Djag (Boy)
Accusative -im Djagim
Instrumental -ir Djagir
Nominative -os Djagos
Objective -er Djager
Ablative -ip Djagip
Dative -óv Djagóv
Genitive -ar Djagar
Vocative -ik Djagik

To make a noun plural one just adds the correct prefixes. Sin- for nouns that start with a vowel and for nouns that start with a consonant.

  • Djag (Boy), djag (Boys)
  • Anen (Tiger), Sinanen (Tigers)

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal pronoun use is often optional as the pronoun can be determined by the verb, adjective, and the gender particle that is used in the pronoun's place. Use is required when a verb is not present.

Case 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Accusative Naté Neté Nité
Instrumental Macé Mecé Micé
Nominative Paqé Peqé Piqé
Objective Abé Sebé Sibé
Ablative Ebalé Ebelé Ebilé
Dative Raracé Reracé Riricé
Genitive Latéf Letéf Litéf
Vocative Cariq Ceriq Ciriq
  • Plural personal pronouns are formed by adding the plural prefix onto the noun. naté (accusative we/us) Sinebelé (ablative you) sibé (objective they/them)


Demonstrative PronounsEdit

All of the other pronouns are treated just like nouns. Here is an example of declining nouns using the two demonstrative pronouns cinac (this) and lanic (that).

Case Cinac Lanic
Accusative Cinacim Lanicim
Instrumental Cinacir Lanicir
Nominative Cinacos Lanicos
Objective Cinacer Lanicer
Ablative Cinacip Lanicip
Dative Cinacov Lanicov
Genitive Cinacar Lanicar
Interrogative Pronouns/Relative PronounsEdit
Zuthuinin English
Cenada Who, Whom
Ronod What
Denec Which


Reflexive PronounsEdit

Reflexive Pronouns are like the personal pronouns and have their own declined forms.

Case 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Accusative Gonaté Goneté Gonité
Instrumental Gomacé Gomecé Gomicé
Nominative Gopaqé Gopeqé Gopiqé
Objective Gabé Gosebé Gosibé
Ablative Gebalé Gebelé Gebilé
Dative Goracé Gorecé Goricé
Reciprocal PronounsEdit

There is only one reciprocal pronoun that's used (Hameno) and actually doesn't decline like the other nouns. It is simply used in its raw state and is commonly translated to English "each other" or "one another".


Indefinite PronounsEdit
Zuthuinin English
Sanih Another
Corin Anybody, Anyone, Anything
Voven Each
Didas Either
Kodad Enough
Hagav Everybody, everyone, everything
Irov Less, little, few
Aniq much, many, several
Sinaténé Neither
Nécorin Nobody, no one, nothing
Sih One
Dareh Other
Fabon Somebody, someone, something
Nekman Both
Linah All
Vatet Any
Nagiq Most
Hafat None
Sapinat Some
Kogot Such

VerbsEdit

PersonEdit

1st Person does not have a conjugation. First person verbs are simply spoken in their original forms with their original endings: -et, -ac, and -im

  • Examples:
    • Bjar̯anac vec. (I am running.)
    • Mjafoqim vic. (I am crying.)


2nd Person

Pronoun -et ending -ac ending -im ending
Accusative Neté -eté -ecé -emé
Instrumental Mecé -etém -ecém -emém
Nominative Peqé -etép -ecép -emép
Objective Sebé -etés -ecés -emés
Ablative Ebelé -etél -ecél -emél
Dative Reracé -etér -ecér -emér
Genitive Letéf -etéf -ecéf -eméf
  • 2nd person examples
    • Bjar̯anecép vic. (You are running.)
    • Mjafoqemép vec. (You are crying.)


3rd Person

Pronoun -et ending -ac ending -im ending
Accusative Nité -ité -icé -imé
Instrumental Micé -itém -icém -imém
Nominative Piqé -itép -icép -imép
Objective Sibé -ités -icés -imés
Ablative Ebilé -etél -ecél -emél
Dative Riricé -itér -icér -imér
Genitive Litéf -itéf -icéf -iméf
  • 3rd person examples
    • Bjar̯anicés vic. (She is running.)
    • Mjafoqimés vec. (He is crying.)

TenseEdit

To indicate a change in tense, prefixes are added onto the verb.

  • Words beginning with a vowel
    • Lés for past tense
    • Dóq for future tense
  • Words beginning with a consonant
    • Lépa for past tense
    • Dóqa for future tense
  • Examples
    • Lépabjar̯anicés vic. (She ran)
    • Dóqamjafoqim vic. (I will cry.)

MoodEdit

There are only 6 moods used and are indicated by particles placed before the verb. The moods and their particles are:

  • Indicative: to show that statements are facts and positive beliefs.
    • indicated by not using a mood particle at all
  • Subjunctive: used for expressing polite requests in dependent clauses, or that it is merely to be desired
    • particle: Hec
  • Imperative: used for expressing direct commands
    • particle: Don
  • Tentative (Potential): a mood of probability used to show the opinion of the speaker, the action, or occurrence is considered likely
    • particle: Rik
  • Interrogative: used to indicate questions
    • particle: Tokes
    • this particle changes if it's a yes or no question. If the answer is expected to be yes (tokesé) and if it's an expected no (tokené)

AdjectivesEdit

ParticlesEdit

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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