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Zuthuinin

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Zuthuinin
Sotómim
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal mʲ m ɱ nʲ n ŋ
Plosive pʲ p bʲ b dʲ d k
Fricative ɸ f fʲ v θ z ʒʲ ʒ h
Affricate
Approximant l ɻ
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close /i/
Near-close /ʊ/
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid /ɛ/
Near-open /ɐ/
Open

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound Name
А а ɐ Am
B b b Ba
Bj bj Bjé
C c t͡ʃ Ca
D d d Da
Dz dz d͡z Dza
Dj dj Djé
Е е ɛ Em
F f f Fa
Fj fj Fjé
G g ʒ Ga
Gj gj ʒʲ Gjé
H h h Ha
I i i Im
K k k Ka
L l l La
M m m Ma
Mj mj Mjé
N n n Na
Nj nj Njé
O o ʊ Om
P p p Pa
Ph ph ɸ Pha
Pj pj Pjé
Q q k
R r ɻ Ra
R̜ r̜ r R̜a
S s z Sa
T t θ Ta
V v v Va

PhonotacticsEdit

Stress Edit

  • There is no set stress rule. Stress is unpredictable and depends on the certain word.
  • To indicate stress, the rising accent: ̌ is added to vowels. This alters the sounds some vowels make.
    • é sounds like /eɪ/
    • í sounds like /iuː/
    • ó sounds like /ɔɪ/

Clusters and Clustering Edit

  • Vowels are never clustered, paired, or duplicated beside itself. A vowel is usually alone or beside a consonant.
  • Impossible consonant clusters include:
    • T + C
    • G + H or Gj + H
    • S + T

Phonological Constraints Edit

  • Zuthuinin typically allows (C)V(C)(V)(c)(t)
    • (c) stands for optional C ending and (t) stands for optional T ending.
  • Words cannot end with an I or Í

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

GenderEdit

There are only three specified genders in Zuthuinin including masculine, feminine, and neuter. Genders are recognized by adding the respective particles after the subject.

  • Neuter is applied to subjects that are either inanimate and have no gender, or subjects that can possibly be either masculine or feminine.
    • Neuter genders are indicated by adding the particle naf
  • Masculine is applied to subjects that are male such as a man, a boy, or a male dog.
    • Masculine genders are indicated by adding the particle vec
  • Feminine is applied to subjects that are female such as a woman, a girl, or a female cat.
    • Feminine genders are indicated by adding the particle vic

CasesEdit

There are only 8 cases used in Zuthuinin. Cases are shown by adding the respective suffixes onto the end of the word and changes depending on if the noun ends in a consonant or a vowel. Singular and plurals are formed an added prefix that also alters if the noun begins with a vowel or a consonant.

Nouns That End in a Vowel
Case Suffix Njása (World)
Accusative -rem Njásarem
Instrumental -vé Njása
Nominative -na Njásana
Objective -bó Njása
Ablative -nip Njásanip
Dative -mos Njásamos
Genitive -hif Njásahif
*Vocative -maq Njásamaq
  • Vocative is not used very often
Nouns That End in a Consonant
Case Suffix Djag (Boy)
Accusative -im Djagim
Instrumental -ir Djagir
Nominative -os Djagos
Objective -er Djager
Ablative -ip Djagip
Dative -óv Djagóv
Genitive -ar Djagar
Vocative -ik Djagik

To make a noun plural one just adds the correct prefixes. Sin- for nouns that start with a vowel and for nouns that start with a consonant.

  • Djag (Boy), djag (Boys)
  • Anen (Tiger), Sinanen (Tigers)

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal pronoun use is often optional as the pronoun can be determined by the verb, adjective, and the gender particle that is used in the pronoun's place. Use is required when a verb is not present.

Case 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Accusative Naté Neté Nité
Instrumental Macé Mecé Micé
Nominative Paqé Peqé Piqé
Objective Abé Sebé Sibé
Ablative Ebalé Ebelé Ebilé
Dative Raracé Reracé Riricé
Genitive Latéf Letéf Litéf
Vocative Cariq Ceriq Ciriq
  • Plural personal pronouns are formed by adding the plural prefix onto the noun. naté (accusative we/us) Sinebelé (ablative you) sibé (objective they/them)


Demonstrative PronounsEdit

All of the other pronouns are treated just like nouns. Here is an example of declining nouns using the two demonstrative pronouns cinac (this) and lanic (that).

Case Cinac Lanic
Accusative Cinacim Lanicim
Instrumental Cinacir Lanicir
Nominative Cinacos Lanicos
Objective Cinacer Lanicer
Ablative Cinacip Lanicip
Dative Cinacov Lanicov
Genitive Cinacar Lanicar
Interrogative Pronouns/Relative PronounsEdit
Zuthuinin English
Cenada Who, Whom
Ronod What
Denec Which


Reflexive PronounsEdit

Reflexive Pronouns are like the personal pronouns and have their own declined forms.

Case 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Accusative Gonaté Goneté Gonité
Instrumental Gomacé Gomecé Gomicé
Nominative Gopaqé Gopeqé Gopiqé
Objective Gabé Gosebé Gosibé
Ablative Gebalé Gebelé Gebilé
Dative Goracé Gorecé Goricé
Reciprocal PronounsEdit

There is only one reciprocal pronoun that's used (Hameno) and actually doesn't decline like the other nouns. It is simply used in its raw state and is commonly translated to English "each other" or "one another".


Indefinite PronounsEdit
Zuthuinin English
Sanih Another
Corin Anybody, Anyone, Anything
Voven Each
Didas Either
Kodad Enough
Hagav Everybody, everyone, everything
Irov Less, little, few
Aniq much, many, several
Sinaténé Neither
Nécorin Nobody, no one, nothing
Sih One
Dareh Other
Fabon Somebody, someone, something
Nekman Both
Linah All
Vatet Any
Nagiq Most
Hafat None
Sapinat Some
Kogot Such

VerbsEdit

PersonEdit

1st Person does not have a conjugation. First person verbs are simply spoken in their original forms with their original endings: -et, -ac, and -im

  • Examples:
    • Bjar̯anac vec. (I am running.)
    • Mjafoqim vic. (I am crying.)


2nd Person

Pronoun -et ending -ac ending -im ending
Accusative Neté -eté -ecé -emé
Instrumental Mecé -etém -ecém -emém
Nominative Peqé -etép -ecép -emép
Objective Sebé -etés -ecés -emés
Ablative Ebelé -etél -ecél -emél
Dative Reracé -etér -ecér -emér
Genitive Letéf -etéf -ecéf -eméf
  • 2nd person examples
    • Bjar̯anecép vic. (You are running.)
    • Mjafoqemép vec. (You are crying.)


3rd Person

Pronoun -et ending -ac ending -im ending
Accusative Nité -ité -icé -imé
Instrumental Micé -itém -icém -imém
Nominative Piqé -itép -icép -imép
Objective Sibé -ités -icés -imés
Ablative Ebilé -etél -ecél -emél
Dative Riricé -itér -icér -imér
Genitive Litéf -itéf -icéf -iméf
  • 3rd person examples
    • Bjar̯anicés vic. (She is running.)
    • Mjafoqimés vec. (He is crying.)

TenseEdit

To indicate a change in tense, prefixes are added onto the verb.

  • Words beginning with a vowel
    • Lés for past tense
    • Dóq for future tense
  • Words beginning with a consonant
    • Lépa for past tense
    • Dóqa for future tense
  • Examples
    • Lépabjar̯anicés vic. (She ran)
    • Dóqamjafoqim vic. (I will cry.)

MoodEdit

There are only 6 moods used and are indicated by particles placed before the verb. The moods and their particles are:

  • Indicative: to show that statements are facts and positive beliefs.
    • indicated by not using a mood particle at all
  • Subjunctive: used for expressing polite requests in dependent clauses, or that it is merely to be desired
    • particle: Hec
  • Imperative: used for expressing direct commands
    • particle: Don
  • Tentative (Potential): a mood of probability used to show the opinion of the speaker, the action, or occurrence is considered likely
    • particle: Rik
  • Interrogative: used to indicate questions
    • particle: Tokes
    • this particle changes if it's a yes or no question. If the answer is expected to be yes (tokesé) and if it's an expected no (tokené)

AdjectivesEdit

ParticlesEdit

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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