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Zvretulin

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Progress 84%
Zvretulin
Zvretulin
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Experimental Tripartite
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

The Zvretulin language is spoken by the Zvretulin people, scattered across much of Europe from Sweden to Greece with some more recent immigrations to Finland and Japan. It has many dialects all differing each other exclusively what loan words they share, though many of these will contain a few loans of Latin & Slavic from an earlier contact before the current diaspora. It has only one known relative, the overwhelmingly complex Zonqval spoken in the far east near Korea. But the two are quite different from each other.

The Language is very complex in its syntactical morphology, but very simplistic, rather analytic, otherwise.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-Dental Dental Alveolar Post Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ng)
Plosive Unvoiced p t c
Plosive Voiced b d g
Affricate Unvoiced ts cz
Affricate

Voiced

dz dj
Fricative Unvoiced f s x h
Fricative Voiced v z j
Approximant y
Flap or tap r
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap l
Click x

There is no regular distinction between the laterals. They are interchangeable.

ng is an allophone of n before velar plosives.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e o
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

When words appear to start with a vowel, they actually begin with a glottal stop.

AlphabetEdit

Nothing is capitalized

The symbol ' is used to separate letters so they don't form digraphs

PhonotacticsEdit

CV, CVC, CCV, CCVC, SCCV & SCCVC, but not VC. (S being any sibulant)

Affricates, voiced plosives & glottals are not clusterable, nor do the appear in the final position. This is with the exception of "tc" witch can appear in the final position.

A sibulant can be before a fricative, plosive, or approximant.

An unvoiced plosive cannot follow a voiced sibulant nor can a voiced plosive follow an unvoiced sibulant.

Plosive & fricatives can be before a flap, including the lateral flap.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No No No
Nouns No Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No Yes No No


NounsEdit

Nouns have three cases to mark the subject, direct object, indirect object, & the agent. Each has a prepositional form. More about the the use of the prepositionals will be explained in the example sentences below.

Nouns also decline according to definitiveness, having a definite, indefinite, and a "non-definite" form. The non-definite form is used when the definitiveness of a noun isn't known, when there are non of the noun, or other instances where it can't be identified as definite nor indefinite.

There are a couple declensions depending on the root ending.

Declension C, where the root ends with any consonant other than t & v.

Subject Subject

Prepositional

Direct

Object

Direct

Object

Prepositional

Indirect

Object

Indirect

Object

Prepositional

Agent Agent

Prepositional

Definite -u -ui -en -eni -a -ei -iv -ivi
Indefinite -ul -uli -il -ili -al -ali -ir -iri
Non-Definite -us -uzi -is -izi -as -azi -it -iczi

Declension T

Subject Subject

Prepositional

Direct

Object

Direct

Object

Prepositional

Indirect

Object

Indirect

Object

Prepositional

Agent Agent

Prepositional

Definite -tu -tui -ten -teni -ta -tei -cziv -czivi
Indefinite -tul -tuli -czil -czili -tal -tali -czir -cziri
Non-Definite -tus -tuzi -czis -czizi -tas -tazi -czit -cziczi

Declension V

Suject Subject

Prepositional

Direct

Object

Direct

Object

Prepositional

Indirect

Object

Indirect

Object

Prepositional

Agent Agent

Prepositional

Definite -vu -vui -veni -veni -va -vei -viv -vibi
Indefinite -vul -vuli -vil -vini -val -vali -vir -viri
Non-Definite -vus -vuzi -vis -vizi -vas -vazi -vit -viczi

PronounsEdit

Zvretulin pronouns act like regular nouns. There are no determiners.

Subject Subject

Prepositional

Direct

Object

Direct

Object

Prepositional

Indirect

Object

Indirect

Object

Prepositional

Agent Agent

Prepositional

Nobody

Noone

unu unui unen uneni una unei univ univi
One

Oneself

ocu ocui ocen oceni oca ocei ociv ocivi
I/Me/Myself

We/Us/Ourselves

icu icui icen iceni ica icei iciv icivi
The guys with me avu avui aven aveni ava avei aviv avivi
We (Exclusive) ivu ivui iven iveni iva ivei iviv ivibi
We (Inclusive) vu vui ven veni va vei viv vibi
You (Particular) izu izui izen izeni iza izei iziv izivi
You (All) zu zui zen zeni za zei ziv zivi
He/Him/Himself

She/Her/Herself

It/Itself

They/Them/Themselves

du dui den deni da dei div divi
Anybody/Anyone lu lui len leni la lei liv livi

AdpositionsEdit

VerbsEdit

Verbs can take multiple tenses. More about the tense can be explained in the example sentences below.

Past Tense: -zel

Past & Present tense: -zelis

Present Tense: -lis

Present & Future Tense: -lisca

Past, Present, & Future Tense: -zelisca

There cannot be a past & future tense without it also being present tense.

Additionally, verbs have prefix forms used to mark the distinction between transitive & intransitive.

Transitive: u-

Intransitive: (no prefix)

To turn a verb into a gerund, use the suffix -int. This is then followed by the appropriate Declension T noun suffix

To turn a verb into an adjective, use the prefix il- & the suffix -int.

To turn a verb into an adverb, use the prefix il-.

The Copula & Passive Voice. Edit

The Copula is zve. It is often prefixed into the next word, but not if the next word starts with a vowel. Unlike other verbs, zve does not have any inflectional forms.

Examples

Before nouns: be a thing = zvetanu

Before adjectives: be good = zvebon

Before Verbs: is reading = zveluc

Before adpositions: be inside: zveti

The copula never appears before any other part of speech.

The Zvretulin equivalent of "is being" is "Zvega." This form inflicts regularly like any other verb.

Negative Particle: ni

Opening Particles Edit

The "Opening" Particles, so-called because they occur at the start of a sentence. identify the type of sentence. They also mark formality.

Other Command Request
Polite ga ta tsa
Familiar gu tu tsu
Formal dji czi tsi
Informal go to tso

Numbers Edit

Cardinal

a

la

ti

cin

van

vi

pi

ya

tu

ca

Ordinal

sa

sla

sti

scin

svan

svi

spi

za

stu

sca

Syntax and Additional RulesEdit

Much like Japanese, Zvretulin is a Verb final language.

To form a question, put the particle "x" at the end of a sentence. This is the only word in the whole language that uses a click.

When an adposition indicate a relation between two nouns, the first noun takes an adpositional suffix & the adposition goes in between the nouns.

When a adposition indicate a relation betwee the noun and an entire event or clause, the addposition ends with i and the noun takes a adpositional suffix. The event or clause can come either before the adposition or after the noun, separated by a comma, but never between.

Adjectives can behave like verbs when transitive.

Duplication adds intensity to an adjective or verb.

Aside from all these rules, Zvretulin is a rather free language.

VocabularyEdit

Example textEdit

I am reading my book & the book is very good.

I(subject) me(direct object/prepositional) of book(direct object/definite) be-(intransitive)read(past-present-future), and book(agent/definite) be (transitive)good-good(past-present-future)

icu iceni di libril zveluc'zelisca, i librir zve ubonbonzelisca.

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