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Zwani is an Imanith language spoken in the Zwan Kingdom (Zwanas Davigulús), where it is the sole official language of it's entire population of 33 million people. 

Zwani
Zwani
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General informationEdit

Zwani is a highly inflected language, with three noun genders, eleven declensions, six noun cases, three tenses, three aspects, three persons, four moods, two voices, and two numbers. It is a fusional nominative-accusative language. Word order is rigidly SVO, but becomes VSO in interrogative sentences. The language is pro-drop as well, which means that subject pronouns are dropped due to verbal indication. The language also has a very heavy use of derivation through suffixes, which change the meaning of a word. 

HistoryEdit

Modern Zwani has been standardized since the Zwan Kingdom became a constitutional diarchy in 1914. Before this, multiple dialects of Zwani and multiple other Imanith languages were spoken throughout the Kingdom. It was written in the constitution that any official language needed to be standardized by the government, and the first comprehensive grammar of Zwani was commisioned. Many other Imanith languages are still spoken regionally within the kingdom but only Zwani has more than a million speakers. In fact, the 33 million Zwani speakers outnumber the combined speakers of every other Imanith language. 

The language is different from Middle Zwani, which fell out of usage sometime in the mid-1600s, due to the loss of dual number, the loss of the progressive aspect (which is now expressed periphrastically), the loss of the conditional mood (which is also now expressed periphrastically), the higher rate of affixing, the complete loss of the vocative case (where it would be used historically, the nominative case is now used), the merging of the partitive and genetive cases, and the merging of the dative and the benefactive cases among other small differences. Despite the numerous known grammatical changes, only one phonological change is known to have taken place:  /ð/ dissappeared and merged with /θ/.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ h
Approximant l j w
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Flap ɾ
Trill r

VowelsEdit

MonophthongsEdit

Front Back
Close i y u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɔ
Open ɑ

DiphthongsEdit

In a dipthong, /u/ is written ‹u› if it isn't preceeding a vowel and ‹w› otherwise. Similarly, /i/ is written as ‹i› if it isn't preceeding a vowel and as ‹y› otherwise. All diphthongs are falling.

-i -u -y -e -o
ɑ- ɑi ɑu ɑy ɑe ɑo
e- ei eu eo
o- oi ou oy
ɔ- ɔy ɔɑ

AllophonyEdit

  • Nasal consonants assimilate in place of articulation, i.e. /ramθa/ is realised as [ran̪θə]
  • Two vowels in a row that do not constitute a diphthong are pronounced with hiatus
  • A diphthong ending in /i/, /u/, or /y/ will have it's final vowel allophonically realised as [j], [w], and [ɥ] respectively when the diphthong is preceeding a vowel or another diphthong
  • A diphthong not ending in /i/, /u/, or /y/ that is preceeding a vowel or another diphthong will be pronounced with a diphthong seperating the two

AlphabetEdit

Aa Bb Cc Ćć Dd Ee Ff Gg Ǵǵ Hh Ii
/ɑ/ /b/ /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /g/ /ɣ/ /h/ /i/
Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Ńń Oo Óó Pp Rr Ŕŕ
/d͡ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /o/ /ɔ/ /p/ /ɾ/ /r/
Ss Śś Tt Þþ Uu Úú  Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
/s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /θ/ /u/ /y/ /v/ /w/ /x/ /j/ /z/
Źź
/ʒ/

PhonotacticsEdit

The syllable structure is (C₁)(C₂)V(C₂)(C₁).

Stop-fricative and fricative-stop clusters are permitted both syllable-initially and syllable-finally as long as they agree in voicing. C₁ can be either a stop or fricative when C₂ is a liquid /l ɾ r/ approximant /j w/. Stop-nasal clusters cannot occur syllable-initially but nasal-stop clusters can occur syllable-finally and always agree in articulation.

StressEdit

Primary stress is placed on the first syllable of a word and secondary stress is placed on the last syllable of a word in two syllable words and the penultimate syllable in three or more syllable words. Monosyllabic words are stressed. Stress affects vowel pronounciation, illustrated in the table below. Diphthongs are pronounced the same regardless of stress.

Stressed Unstressed
a /ɑ/ /ə/
e /e/ /ɛ/
i /i/ /ɪ/
o /o/ /o/
ó /ɔ/ /ɔ/
u /u/ /ʊ/
ú /y/ /ʏ/

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are highly irregular and do not follow normal declension patterns as other nouns do. Zwani is a pro-drop language so nominative pronouns are usually omitted. However, 3rd person pronouns are usually not omitted if the gender distinction is necessary.

NOM ACC DAT GEN INSTRU LOC
1S ma kain
2S sea sif
3SM hawa
3SF haal
3SN
1PL
2PL
3PL

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Zwani conjugate for three tenses, two aspects, and two moods (three in the present tense). Only one conjugation exists. Infinitives end in -ek and verb stems take on different endings to convey information. The passive voice is expressed periphrastically similarly to English. The progressive aspect is expressed periphrastically as well. The regular verb anek - to make - is conjugated below.

Active voice

Present Past Future Perfect Pluperfect Future perfect Imperative
1SG ana anaþu animta anuka aniþa aniula -
2SG ano analoa animto anuko aniþo aniulo ani
3SG an anúa aneda anúxuli an anixla -
1PL anum anamhu aniśta anumi aninþa aniuma anóli
2PL anaki anofea animti anuki aniþi anife anea
3PL anet anespi animte aneke aniþe aniule -

Irregular verbsEdit

There are a few irregular verbs in Zwani. They are detailed in a separate article. 

> Zwani/Irregular Verbs

NounsEdit

All nouns in Zwani belong to three genders: Masculine, Feminine, and Inanimate. Nouns are generally assigned a gender semantically, i.e. man would be masculine, woman would be feminine, and wheel would be inanimate. However, many inanimate nouns belong to either of the animate genders. Most living things or professions (bear, president, etc) are inherently feminine and a suffix is added to indicate that the noun in question is semantically masculine, but there exists completely seperate words for things such as man and woman, son and daughter, or king and queen. Some nouns are inherently masculine, such as aos - god, or únizi - soldier. Nouns in each gender can decline differently as well, depending on whether they end in a consonant or vowel. If a noun ends in a diphthong, it declines as a consonant-ending noun regardless of its spelling. Nouns decline for six cases and there are no irregular declensions.

  • The nominative case marks the subject.
  • The accusative case marks the direct object of a clause
  • The dative case marks the indirect object, but also functions as a benefactive case, and marks the object of almost all non-locative (including motion) prepositions.
  • The genitive case shows possession or apposition, but also functions as a partitive case.
  • The instrumental case marks a noun being used for something. This can be using an object to do something (ex: i write with the pencil) or using a place for a gathering (ex: we had a party at my house). Despite being semantically correct, the locative is never used for the latter construction.
  • The locative case marks location in at or on something. There is no distinction between the three other than context. It is used to mark the object of locative prepositions (such as inside)

Inanimate nounsEdit

Most nouns in Zwani belong to the inanimate gender, but not all semantically inanimate nouns do, and no semantically animate nouns do. Inanimate nouns have the widest array of different declensions, with 4 declensions being utilised if the noun ends in a voiced plosives and fricatives, an unvoiced plosive or sonorant, a front vowel, or a back vowel.

The consonant endings essentially suffix case endings, and the only difference in declensions between voiced plosives/unvoiced fricatives and unvoiced plosives/sonorants is in the genitive and locative singular endings, and many plural endings. The tables follow the order of voiced plosive/fricatve endings, unvoiced plosive/sonorant endings, front vowel endings, and then back vowel endings. Endings are in bold.

declension of idab - book
Singular Plural
Nominative idab idabe
Accusative idabi idabit
Dative idabu idabuyu
Genitive idabas idabusa
Instrumental idaba idabani
Locative idabun idabuin
declension of kavin - road
Singular Plural
Nominative kavin kavine
Accusative kavini kavint
Dative kavinu kavinuyu
Genitive kavins kavinsi
Instrumental kavina kavinani
Locative kavinþa kavinþai

The vowel ending nouns are more complicated than consonant ending nouns, as these utilise vowel mutation as well as suffixes. The final vowel is often truncated in favor of an opposite vowel (front for back, back for front). However, not all declensions utilise vowel mutation and simply suffix a case ending onto the noun. Endings are in bold.

declension of itúmú - advice
Singular Plural
Nominative itúmú itúma
Accusative itúmo itúmot
Dative itúmúya itúmoya
Genitive itúmús itúmúsa
Instrumental itúmúka itúmók
Locative itúmúþa itúmaþ
declension of izwo - chair
Singular Plural
Nominative izwo izwol
Accusative izwe izwet
Dative izwoya izweya
Genitive izwis izwisa
Instrumental izwúk izwúka
Locative izwoþ izwoþo

Masculine nounsEdit

Masculine nouns in Zwani constitute all semantically masculine nouns, including feminine nouns with the masculinizing suffix -ig, as well as irregularly masculine nouns that are semantically inanimate. Semantically inanimate masculine nouns include body parts, weapons, or languages. Masculine nouns have 4 declensions that are identical to inanimate nouns, but have different endings. The tables follow the order of voiced plosive/fricatve endings, unvoiced plosive/sonorant endings, front vowel endings, and then back vowel endings. Endings are in bold.

declension of davig - king
Singular Plural
Nominative davig davigi
Accusative davigo davigot
Dative davigu davigun
Genitive davigas davigast
Instrumental daviga davigal
Locative davig daviguþi
declension of sónak - finger
Singular Plural
Nominative sónak sónaki
Accusative sónako sónakt
Dative sónaku sónakun
Genitive sónaks sónaksa
Instrumental sónakai sónakami
Locative sónak sónaktaþ
declension of adowi - zombie
Singular Plural
Nominative aneswi aneswe
Accusative aneswo aneswot
Dative aneswiyu aneswayu
Genitive aneswis aneswisa
Instrumental aneswik aneswak
Locative aneswin anesw
declension of ada - wing
Singular Plural
Nominative ada adabe
Accusative ade adet
Dative adayo adiyu
Genitive adas adasau
Instrumental adak adúk
Locative adanu adeþa

Feminine nounsEdit

Feminine nouns in Zwani constitute all semantically feminine nouns, including masculine nouns with the feminizing suffix -ixúm, nouns with this suffix are uncommon because most nouns that can be distinct based on the gender of the subject are inherently feminine, such as bear or lawyer. Common nouns with this suffix include aosixúm - goddess, and únizixúm - soldier (f). As with masculine nouns, some nouns that are sematically inanimate are treated as feminine, such as numerals. Feminine nouns have 3 declensions, merging the first two of the inanimate and masculine nouns, leaving declensions based on the noun ending in a consonant, front vowel, or back vowels. The tables follow the order of consonant endings, front vowel endings, and then back vowel endings. 

declension of þadiv - moon
Singular Plural
Nominative þadiv þadiva
Accusative þadivi þadivit
Dative þadivu þadivabu
Genitive þadivas þadivist
Instrumental þadivai þadivam
Locative þadivan þadivaþi
declension of vosi - person
Singular Plural
Nominative vosi vosa
Accusative voso vosot
Dative vosu vosibu
Genitive vosis vosisa
Instrumental vosak vosiwak
Locative vosiþ vosóþ
declension of bifela - friend
Singular Plural
Nominative bifela bifele
Accusative bifeli bifelit
Dative bifelayu bifeleya
Genitive bifelas bifelúsa
Instrumental bifelak bifelaxa
Locative bifelan bifelaþi

ModifiersEdit

Modifiers agree with whatever they modify and decline to show comparativity or superlativity, and decline differently if they end in a consonant or vowel. In a similar fashion to nouns, adjectives or adverbs ending in a diphthong (as well as adverbs with the -au ending) decline as a consonant-ending noun.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives decline differently if they end in a consonant or a vowel and agree with the case and gender of the noun they modify. Adjectives also decline to become comparative or superlative. The two declensions are almost identical and there are no irregular adjectives.

declension of wov - small
Absolute Comparitive Superlative
MASC FEM INAN MASC FEM INAN MASC FEM INAN
NOM wovin wova wov wovinke wovakne wovekne wovinamsi wovalamsi wovelamsi
ACC wovin wova wovi wovinke wovakne wovekni wovinamsi wovalamsi wovalimsi
DAT wovin wova wovu wovinke wovakne wovukna wovinamsi wovalamsi wovulimsu
GEN wovis wovas wovas wovisni wovasna wovasna woviselmi wovesami wovesalmi
INS wovani wovak wovia wovansi wovaksa wovaknia wovisanmi wovasalki woviasmi
LOC wovún wov wov wovúnsi wovaþsa wovaþni wovúsalmi wovasaþki woviþamsi
declension of aska - full
Absolute Comparitive Superlative
MASC FEM INAN MASC FEM INAN MASC FEM INAN
NOM askan askaś aska askanke askaśne askanike askanamsi askaśami askalamsi
ACC askan askaś askat askanke askaśne askanite askanamsi askaśami askalúmti
DAT askan askaś askayu askanke askaśne askayute askanamsi askaśami askayumto
GEN askasni askas askas askasine askasuye askasuye askasamni askaselmi askaselmi
INS askanai askakei askaya askansai askaseki askayase askanaiso askalomki askayamsi
LOC aska askaśaþ askaþi askanúsi askaśeþi askameþa askanúlsi askaśoþki askaþamsi

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs, like adjectives, preceed the verb they modify. They decline differently if they end in a consonant or vowel similarly to adjectives. Adverbs agree with the verb they modify in tense, and in their unmarked form agree with the present tense. Adverbs also decline to become comparitive or superlative the same as adjectives. Many adverbs do not have seperate forms from adjectives (as in the English pair good - well), and are simple adjectives with an adverbial suffixes. All adverbs in Zwani end in a vowel, and there are no irregular declensions. To derive an adverb from an adjective, suffix -a or -ja.



VocabularyEdit

Zwani Dictionary  at ConWorkShop (updated frequently)

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.
Edit

GreetingsEdit

english zwani
hello aŕoj
goodbye aniyas
welcome vogyu

NumbersEdit

Numbers in Zwani are almost completely irregular from 0-99. Numbers past 100 are formed simply: by multiplication and addition. A base, such as azac (hundred), cannot represent 100 by itself. Because of this, ef is needed in order to represent 100, resulting in efazac. Two vowels next to each other from forming larger numbers are pronounced with a hiatus. The suffix -wu is added to denote ordinal numbers. Adverbial numbers (once, twice, thrice) are formed by the suffix -lu.

-0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9
∅- nidos ef vi yu van pać paf aziza xito giv
1- fas fjara vilar yaiza viza paića pifa azai aixi gaiva
2- viz favi vavi yaovi vivi pati pifú zuvi xivi gavi
3- yula ifis ivis iyus vayus paućus pifus zuvus aixis vagavis
4- gat efgat vigat yugat avgat paćat pafai zivut xitat gávigat
5- péba efpa vipa yupa vaopa béća péfa azéza xéta géva
6- faolas efaola evaola yula vanula paoćila paufa azila xila gavao
7- aizam efaiza evaiza uyaiza vanaiza ćaiza paifa azazim xilaiz gavaiz
8- kat efka vika yuka vańka aćkat pafkat azikat xitik gékat
9- iklos eklef viklef yuklef vaklos palćos piflos azilos xilos givlos
English base Zwani
hundred azac
thousand aiǵa
million iśiya
billion lun
trillion iton

Example TextEdit

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