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Zxoaame

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Name: Zxoaame

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Mixed

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions Yes No Yes No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

Zxoaame (pronounced ʒo'jame) is the constructed language of Zxoaamakonora, a large island nation smack dab in the middle of the Indian Ocean. The size of the island is comparable to Puerto Rico. When it was discovered by European traders in the late 18th century, it became a trading station and quickly grew into a luxurious European hub. The English initially claimed the calm island, but French, Spanish, and even Russian influences spread within a decade. The influx of foreigners introduced new elements to the native culture including (inadvertently) their languages. The result of the conglomeration was Zxoaame, an attempted auxlang with the structure similar to that of European languages but a vocabulary comprised entirely of Zxoaaman roots. The auxlang never gained ground among the traders, but the islanders were keen on facilitating communications with those who brought them exotic goods.

Phonology & PhonotacticsEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Retroflex Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive- Aspirated
Plosive - Unaspirated p⁼ b t⁼ d k⁼ g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant l ɻ w

Consonants may only come in clusters of 2 except when separated by a syllabic break: [amz.vroje]

VowelsEdit

Front Near-Front Back
Close i u
Near-Close ɪ
Close-Mid e o
Open-Mid ɛ
Open a

When two of the same vowel appear in succession, a [j] (palatal approximant) precedes the sound: (aa = [ja]). When three of the same vowel appear in succession, the [j] is penultimate: (aaa = [aja])

Because of the retroflex approximant (ɻ), the vowels that precede this phoneme are rhoticized.

OrthographyEdit

Zxoaame uses the simple Latin alphabet (i.e. no diacritics)

Letter IPA
a a
b b
d d
e e
ɛ (before stressed vowels)
f f
g g
h h
i i
ɪ (when unstressed)
k kʰ (initial)
k⁼ (mid and final)
l l
m m
n n
o o
p pʰ (initial)
p⁼ (mid and final)
r ɻ
s s
t tʰ (initial)
t⁼ (mid and final)
u u
v v
w w
z z

DigraphsEdit

xx
sx ʃ
dx
zx ʒ
nn ŋ

Digraphs count as one consonant and may be preceded/succeeded by another consonant. Two digraphs may not be placed together, even when separated by a syllabic break. Though if it occurs, the vowel "e" is used between them. In the case of 2 successive words, one ending in a digraph and the next beginning, the "e" is placed on the second word: (tasxexx, voxx exxi).

There is a non-standard but generally accepted "invisible" rule regarding non-digraph sibilants. If two or more sibilants are placed next to each other, a reduced "invisible" vowel [ə] may be used between them: (gesx [ə] sandi, raz[ə]zxe).

StressEdit

Stress for the most part is penultimate, but there are many irregulars.

Basic GrammarEdit

Word OrderEdit

Zxoaame is generally SVO.


VerbsEdit

Verbs end in "-zxe", the infinitive. Conjugated verbs are succeeded by verbs in their infinitive form (I want to go). Below are the regular endings in the present tense.

Verb Conjugation
Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person -uu -kwo -ok -lor
2nd Person -el -uvum -zil -sar
3rd Person -eet -ut -fin

-del


Here's the conjugation of a regular verb zazxe - to walk

Verb Conjugation - Zazxe
Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person zauu zakwo zaok zalor
2nd Person zael zauvum zazil zasar
3rd Person zaeet zaut zafin zadel


Here an example of an irregular verb conjugation for mezxe - to be

Verb Conjugation - Mezxe
Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person ve voko meook milin
2nd Person vel veer mezil mesar
3rd Person voxx vuut mesx mesxen


TenseEdit

The two tenses (past and future) are split into the near and the far, relative to the context of the conversation. All verbs are regular when changing tenses.

Verb Conjugation- Past Tenses
Near Past Far Past
Human Non-Human Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person -uuda -kwoma -oko -lore -uudala -kwomala -okoda -loreda
2nd Person -elen -uvume -zilva -saran -elena -uvumela -zilvada -sarana
3rd Person -eexx -utar -finta -dela -eexxa -utara -fintada -delada


Verb Conjugation- Future Tenses
Near Future Far Future
Human Non-Human Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st Person -uuga -kwoxx -okam -lort -uugale -kwoxxe -okame -lorte
2nd Person -elur -uvumar -zilzxa -sari -elure -uvumare -zilzxabe -saribe
3rd Person -eetom -utare -finor -delme -eetome -utareve -finore -delmebe


VoiceEdit

Zxoaame possesses 2 marked voices; the active is understood.

ActiveEdit

The active voice is unmarked.

PassiveEdit

The passive voice is formed with the past (near or far, depending on context) participle and the prefix "zxa". The conjugation is that of the agent:

  • Et kate zxahemesxoruuda di aam - The cat was thrown by me
MiddleEdit

Middle voice is formed with the prefix "por"

  • Et kate porhemesxorfin - The cat throws itself


AspectsEdit

Aspect endings are always ultimate in relation to the tense and person

Aspect Ending Example Translation Literal Translation
Habitual -xxe epe huubadelxxe It rains (everyday) they rain-hab.
Progressive -mele epe huubadelmele It is raining they rain-prog.
Perfective -onnwa epe huubadelonnwa It has rained they rain-perf.
Prospective -sobaa epe huubadelsobaa It is going to rain they rain-prosp.
Inceptive -slozxa epe huubadelslozxa It started raining they rain-incep.
Terminative -etsee epe huubadeletsee It is finishing raining they rain-term.


MoodsEdit

Verbs do not conjugate for moods. Particles are used instead and precede the subject.

Mood Particle Example Translation Literal Translation
Imperative tosx tosx epe huubadel rain! imp. they rain
Interrogative baa baa epe huubadel? is it raining? int. they rain?
Conditional dxek dxek epe huubadel it would rain cond. they rain
Subjunctive morda morda epe huubadel were it to rain sub. they rain
Adhortative laasi laasi epe huubadel it should rain adh. they rain
Exhortative roga roga epe huubadel it must rain exh. they rain


CasesEdit

There are five cases used in Zxoaame.

Nominative CaseEdit

The subject of the sentence, as opposed to the object. Nouns decline in the nominative, not the root. Predicates are in the nominative.

  • Tope mesx uu kate - It is a cat

Accusative CaseEdit

The direct object

  • Aa hemesxoruu er katek - I throw the cat

The Accusative is used with prepositional phrases that describe a change in position

  • Aa paluu go er aftozxos - I run to the car (You run from a previous position to a new position- the car)

Dative CaseEdit

The indirect object

  • Aa zduvuu efe kateke mezxe priska - I want the cat to be pink

The Dative is used with prepositional phrases that do not describe a change in position

  • Aa paluu va efe kisxvi - I run with shoes (You run by the use of shoes)

Possessive CaseEdit

Rather than a genitive case (as is more common), the possessive case is used to denote the relationship of possession. An article must always be used, though definitiveness is determined by context:

  • aaz uuwa kate - my (a) cat

The possessive case does not influence the declension of the possessed object

  • Aa paluu go aaz ez katek - I run to my (the) cat

Comparative-Equative CaseEdit

Rare even on their own, the comparative and equative cases (as their names suggest) mark a similarity or equality to an object. In Zxoaame, these cases are put together and rely on a few trigger words:

  • vee - like/as
  • ebeneka...sxar - more...than
  • izxebeneka...sxar - less...than

(These forms of the adverbs "beneka" and "izxbeneka" are used only with the Comparative-Equative case)

  • osxka...vee - as...as


Usage Examples:

  • Ezx zenbaeet vee uuzxa kixxioora - This tastes like a fish

The comparison is initiated with "vee", the article and the compared noun are declined.


  • Aa ve ebeneka prozx esxar besx - I am more fast than you

Note that the adjective does not decline.


When a noun is modified by a number or relative quantity, it does not decline:

  • Aa ve ebeneka prozx esxar sieen gadxi - I am more fast than 100 winds (idiom)

The speaker is not faster than winds in general, only the 100 that are explicitly stated, so "gadxi" does not decline. However, if the noun phrase is definite, the noun declines (i.e. the 100 winds). Numbers/relative quantities do not require articles unless in this manner.


  • Aa ve ebeneka prozx esxar zmon gadxi - I am more fast than some winds

Again, not in general, only "some." In other words, some winds could be faster than you.


There is an exception to this rule:

  • Aa ve ebeneka prozx esxar paa gadxioori - I am more fast than all winds

Nouns and DeclensionEdit

Noun Declension
Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative Consonant -a -o -i -s -s Digraph -e -i -u -i -m -f -z
Accusative -us -ma -za -is -mas -zas -os -k -m -t -is -ka -mu -taa
Dative -eel -tu -dxe -iil -tus -dxes -ve -ke -s -ti -vi -kel -su -tis
Possessive -aa -ne -ne -li -nes -nes -ko -nn -nn -nn -ki -nni -nni -nni
Comparative-Equative -usxem -sxem -xxem -isxem -sxemes -xxemes -ioora -foz -xxa -zxu -ioori -fozi -xxana -zxuni


PronounsEdit

Pronoun Declension
Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural
I You He/She We You All They I You It We You All They
Nominative aa bek dxe em fontosx xxi ooo ke tope tazx esxke epe
Accusative avaa beken dxee desa sxor xxipa ooos kek topek tazxos esxkek epek
Dative aam beket dxar emes zxosa xxina ooosa keke topeke tazxoosa esxuta epeke
Possessive aaz anbek dxara eses zxoma xxika anooos kenn topenn antazxa esxkenn epenn
Comparative-Equative aaxxo besx dxel eexxe zxesxa xxivi oooxxoaa kefoz topefoz tazxesxa esxkefoz epefoz


ArticlesEdit

Article Declension
Human Non-Human
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite
Nominative zo de zom dem et uu eti ee
Accusative za da zam dam er uuz ere eez
Dative ze do zem dom ef uuxx efe eexx
Possessive zi di zem dim ez uuwa eze eewa
Comparative-Equative zxu dxu zxum dxum esx uuzxa esxe eezxa


AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives do not decline and are placed immediately before the noun

  • Et horoda kate mesx prozx - The brown cat is fast

Demonstrative AdjectivesEdit

The demonstratives also do not decline but are distinguished by distance

  • ezx - this
  • darezx - that
  • ladarezx - yonder


AdverbsEdit

Rather than being a catch-all category for verb/adjective/sentence modifiers, adverbs in Zxoaame are split into those categories (designated by VM, AM, and SM). These adverb groups go before the item they describe.

Verb Modifier (VM)Edit

VMs were originally formed by doubling the nominative. But over time, the word for "two" or "double" was adopted as a prefix to a singular root.

Some examples:

  • Prozxprozx --> Leprozx (quickly- lit. "double fast")
Aa leprozx paluu - I quickly run
Note: This does not mean "twice as fast"
  • Giragira --> Legira (slowly)
Dxe legira miaadxaneet - He/she slowly swims
  • Maatamaata --> Lemaata (forcefully)
Bek lemaata hemesxorel er katek - You forcefully throw the cat

Adjective Modifier (AM)Edit

AMs end in "eka" or "ka":

  • beneka - very (to a great degree)
Dxe voxx beneka prozx - He is very fast
  • izxbeneka - a bit (to a lesser degree)
Dxe voxx izxbeneka prozx - He is a bit fast
  • izxka - not (to no degree)
Dxe voxx izxka prozx - He is not fast
  • osxka - as
Tope mesx osxka prozx vee aaxxo - It is as tall as me (lit. It is as tall like me)
Note: This is one of the trigger words for the comparative-equative case. The conjunction "vee" (meaning roughly "like" or "as") is the main trigger and complements "osxka."

Sentence Modifier (SM)Edit

SMs are formed with the prefix "mir" attached to the nominative. SMs are usually modal adverbs.

  • Mirdxa - today
Mirdxa aa paluu - Today I run
Note: Time periods are expressed as sentence or clause modifiers rather than verb modifiers
  • Mirkadaeen - obviously, clearly
Mirkadaeen em akwo uuz katek - Obviously we have a cat
  • Mirgovoaa - as a matter of fact
Mirgovoaa em oom akwo uuz katek - As a matter of fact, we do have a cat
Note: "oom" is used to contradict a negative statement and is placed before the verb.

InterrogativesEdit

These words must be preceded by "baa" in order to function as interrogatives. Determiners:

Baa fe uu kate? - What cat?


Aa kovuu fe uu kate - I know what cat.

  • fe - what
  • mok - whose

Pronoun:

  • ran - who
  • xxan - which

Pro-adverb:

  • var - where
  • mizxa - when
  • dolze - how
  • hiuu - why

PrepositionsEdit

Prepositions decline only for gender and number:

Singular Plural
Human - -i
Non-Human -o -a


to Singular Plural
Human g gi
Non-Human go ga


with Singular Plural
Human v vi
Non-Human vo va


If the preposition describes a change in position, the accusative is used for the succeeding items. If it does not describe a change in position, the dative is used instead:

Aa paluu vo ef kateke - I run with the cat. (dative)

"Alongside" does not describe a change in location of the runner, it describes his proximity to the cat.

Bek palel go er katek - You run to the cat. (accusative)

"To" describes a change in location; the runner began from an unknown location and ended at a different location.


ConjunctionsEdit

These are pretty straightforward

CoordinatingEdit

and zxee
but/yet nam
or omon
nor oomon

SubordinateEdit

Zxoaame does not possess any subordinate conjunctions. SM adverbs are used instead.

CorrelatingEdit

both...and zxba...zxee
not only...but also ooz...nam
either...or vmanaa...omon
neither...nor oovmanaa...oomon


Existensial ClauseEdit

An existensial clause is formed with the infinitive vomnazxe - to exist:

  • Vomnazxe ee katem - There are (some) cats


NumbersEdit

The Zxoaamans, due to the extent of European trading, have adopted the European numeral system.

0 zero
1 un
2 do
3 tre
4 kaxxro
5 sinko
6 ses
7 set
8 oxxa
9 neve
10 dis
11 onze
12 dose
13 trese
20 vente
21 vente-un
22 vente-do
30 trente
40 kaxxente
50 sinkente
100 sieen
200 do-sieen
1000 mil
10,000 dis-mil
100,000 sieen-mil
1,000,000 milioon
1,000,000,000 bilioon


Basic ConversationEdit

Hello - Halo (to Europeans), Eti demuz ipadel (lit. The gods smile)

How are you? - Baa bek vel? (lit. Do you are?- requires "yes" or "no" instead of "good" or "bad")

Yes - da

No - oo

Goodbye - Va efe demuztaa (lit. with the gods)

Please/You're Welcome - belooo

Thank You - take


Example textEdit

Featured BannerEdit

English

This language was once featured.

Thanks to its level of quality, plausability, and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured


Translation

Ezx et beelini leun zxadivnipolutar to ef admineke

Miro tope vofin bene et gimatovalagu, et vesnaatlagu, zxee et sxkalagu, tope mesxonnwa zxaxxaaautar divnipolzxe ti dom ozxeglamstiil.


Direct Translation

This the language once was shown by the admin.

Because it has much the quality, the reality, and the usability, it has been was chosen to show by some vote-people.


The North Wind and the SunEdit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

English

The North Wind and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes. The North Wind first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do. The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth. The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path.

Persuasion is better than Force.


Translation

Et kif sxule zxee et sxovu posxdelada bo xxan mefintada lebene obrezxva, zxee dibrandelada laasi tope zxakofafintada et poline xxan morda dxumanfintada leun huaanzxe di buurstaa ere sxpovemka. Et kif sxule leun pakafintada topenn er sxoaaxxos zxee wirmafintada vi paa topenn et grusx, nam beneka doft topenn eti wirmas,


Direct translation

The north wind and the sun fought for which was more powerful, and agreed should it be declared the winner which were it be able first to take off a traveler's the clothes. The north wind first tried his the power and blew with all his the strength, but more keen his the blows, the closer

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